Language studies

Ефективност на генерични модели HTR за историческа кирилица и глаголица: Сравнение на средства

Performance of Generic HTR Models on Historical Cyrillic and Glagolitic: Comparison of Engines

Способы демонстрции данных славянского исторического полнотекстового корпуса “Манускрипт”

Data Demonstration Techniques in Slavonic Historical Text Corpus “Manuscript”

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article discusses theoretical and practical issues of creating tools for demonstrating medieval Slavonic text corpus at the “Manuscript” website (http:// The specific features of the historical corpus and its sources are: the limited number of manuscripts, variability of medieval graphics and orthography, complex structure, and composition of original documents. They require special instruments and techniques for data preparation (information about a text and its physical media, analytical tagging of fragments, variability, and other), and visualization of data sampling, including texts. The article focuses on the ways of solving two opposite tasks: the texts’ demonstration in a form as close as possible to the original and their simplified form, and, consequently, the possibilities of their transformation. The first task should be solved by preparing a transcription via a specialized editing tool, which interacts with the full-text database with a complete set of required characters, text formatting, and make-up to fit the original page. To solve the second problem, analytical tagging (chapters and verses, authors of texts, structure of manuscript, main text and marginalia, and so forth) and linguistic tagging (including lemmatization) are performed to make data search and data transformation available when displayed. The latter allows users to see a text in modern Cyrillic or Latin, syllables, meaning of analytical fragments, links between the main text and its marginalia, and so forth. The ability to data search based on deep tagging and the digital edition (LIM, MS 37, 13th c., 291 f.) which has been included in the “Manuscript” historical corpus (

Най-ранното свидетелство за Лествицата

The Earliest Attestation of the Lěstvica

  • Summary/Abstract

    The earliest attestation of the Slavonic translation of the Scala Paradisi is not furnished by the excerpts in the Simeonov Sbornik, but by those in the Scaliger Patericon, which can reliably be dated before the removal of library resources from Pliska to Preslav, i.e. ‘after 887 but before 893’. It contains 59 excerpts (ca. 1210 words) from twelve chapters (1 through 30), which provide a convenient base to examine the relationship of versions a and b of the translation. Both versions have protographs written in Glagolitic, which discredits the claim that version b be a 14th century Athonite work. Both versions vary in 21%, but share 79% of the text, i.e. one of them served as an exemplar for the other. The proposal to consider a co–author of 21% is based on the following: a corrects deficiencies in b, but b not in a; recurrent variation shows patterning in a, not in b; a is ignorant of Cyrillo–Methodian monastic terminology. The most probable dating of a is to ‘before 887’ and of b correspondingly to ‘before a’.

К истории древнеболгарского часослова

Toward the History of the Early Bulgarian Horologion

Текущ българо-австрийски проект за проучване на ръкопис Зограф 105 и неговия фрагмент № 3070

The current Bulgarian-Austrian project on the investigations of the manuscript Zograf No. 105 and its fragment No. 3070

Славянски превод на Охридския хрисовул от 1273 г.

A Slavic translation of the Ohrid Chrysobull of 1273

Книга пророк Даниил, включена в Хрониката на Йоан Зонара, № 105 от манастира Зограф (предварителни бележки)

The Book of Daniel, included in the Chronicle of Johannes Zonaras, No 105 from the Zograf monastery (Preliminary notes

Житието на Стефан Лазаревич и Родослов на сръбските владетели в ръкопис № 88, ф. 201, Руски държавен архив

The Life of Stefan Lazarevic´ and a Genealogy of Serbian Rulers in MS No 88, coll. 201, Russian State Archive

  • Summary/Abstract

    A 16th c. manuscript of truly remarkable content is kept at the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA) – No 88, Op. 1, Obolensky Collection (f. 201). It includes an excerpt of the Life of Stefan Lazarević by Konstantin Kostenečki and a Rodoslov (Genealogy) of the Serbian rulers designed as a Loza Nemanjića-type family tree scheme. The genealogical work replicates part of the facts from the hagiographic one, but complements the vita and enriches the information it provides. The excerpt from the Life of Stefan Lazarević is an account about the rulers of the Nemanjić dynasty, from Stefan Nemanja to Uroš V and from Vukan to Stefan Lazarević. The Genealogy does not overlap with any of the known Serbian chronicles. It has a larger chronological scope and deals with the so-called second branch, which is presented briefly in most related texts. While the hagiographical part talks about the descendants of Stefan Prvovenčani (the “First-Crowned”), the second part emphasizes the descendants of his brother Vukan. There are included those representatives of the dynasty who were rulers or wives of rulers. Considered as a whole, the two texts show a different conception of power and this distinguishes them from other Serbian Genealogies.

Re-imaging Versiones Slavicae

Нова представа за Versiones Slavicae

  • Summary/Abstract

    The paper discusses a strategy for transforming the Versiones Slavicae database into an XML format, which would improve opportunities for application-independent preservation and maintenance.

    Нова представа за Versiones Slavicae
    Андрей Бояджиев
    (Софийски университет „Св. Климент Охридски“, България)

    Инициативата Versiones Slavicae започва през декември 2011 г. с финансиране, осигурено от двугодишна безвъзмездна финансова помощ от Българския фонд за научни изследвания. Целта на тази инициатива е „да се разработи свободно достъпен интернет базиран електронен каталог на средновековни славянски преводи и съответните им византийски източници“. Настоящата статия обсъжда възможен подход при трансформирането и конвертирането на базата данни Versiones Slavicae в XML формат.

Hilandar Monastery Sbornici: An Incipitaria Project of the Hilandar Research Library

Сборниците от сбирката на манастира Хилендар: проектът за инципити на текстове на Хилендарската научна библиотека

  • Summary/Abstract

    On the recommendation of the participants of the First International Hilandar Conference (1981), the Hilandar Research Library and the Resource Center for Medieval Slavic Studies at The Ohio State University initiated a project to create an incipitaria of the Hilandar Monastery Sbornici (miscellanies or compilations) from the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, research that overlaps with and has been enhanced by the scholarly life’s work of Professor Klimentina Ivanova. The history and goals of the project are outlined here. The criteria for selecting the project’s manuscripts are discussed, and some observations gleaned from working with the texts are shared. A print publication of the Incipitaria has not been realized, but Professor Ivanova’s Bibliotheca Hagiographica Balcano-Slavica, and the forthcoming Bibliotheca Homiletica Balcano-Slavica, which are greatly enriched by the materials from Hilandar Monastery’s library, are invaluable resources to students and researchers of the medieval Slavic homiletic and hagiographical traditions.

    Сборниците от сбирката на манастира Хилендар: проектът за инципити на текстове на Хилендарската научна библиотека
    Мери-Алън Джонсън
    (Хилендарска изследователска библиотека,
    Държавен университет на щата Охайо, Кълъмбъс, САЩ)

    По препоръка на участниците в Първата международна Хилендарска конференция (1981) в Хилендарската изследователска библиотека и в Ресурсния център за средновековни славянски изследвания към Държавния университет на щата Охайо започна проект за създаване на инципитарий на текстове от сборници от ХІV и ХV век от сбирката със славянски ръкописи от манастира Хилендар. Тези изследвания са реализирани в научното дело на проф. Климентина Иванова. В статията са очертани историята и целите на проекта. Обсъждат се критериите за избор на ръкописите за проекта и се споделят някои наблюдения, извлечени от работата с текстовете. Печатната публикация на инципитария все още не е реализирана, но в книгата на проф. Иванова Hagiographica Balcano-Slavica и в предстоящата Bibliotheca Homiletica Balcano-Slavica материалите от библиотеката на Хилендарския манастир значително са обогатени и представляват безценни ресурси за изследователите на средновековни славянски хомилетични и агиографски традиции.

Неизвестный кодекс XVI в. в Палеографическом архиве Национального банка Греции1

Неизвестен ръкопис от XVI в. от Палеографския архив на Националната банка на Гърция

  • Summary/Abstract

    The paper presents an hitherto unknown Slavic codex from the 16th century, which is preserved today under the signature No. MIET 64 in the Paleographical Archive of the National Bank of Greece. This paper codex represents a convolute consisting of two parts, which can be distinguished mainly relying on the different old pagination of the quires (‘tetradia’). They contain hymnographic works and liturgical texts. In an inscription on f. 70v the scribe gives his name as “Diak Ioan” and indicates the date of the copy (1549). Because of this and of certain palaeographical features we propose that the second MS is the work of the well-known copyist Ioan Kratovski. His scribal activity lasted from 1526 to 1583. This MS thus belonged to the earlier period of his career. As the copyist mentions, the first part of the manuscript was produced for a monastery named after the St Archangel Michael and since the two parts of the second MS contain texts devoted to this Archangel, it seems likely that this MS was produced for the Archangel Michael monastery in Lesnovo. It is located near the town of Kratovo, to which it had close connections especially in the 15th and 16th century. The first part, ff. 1–30, was created by an unknown copyist in the first half of the 16th century, as can be inferred from the characteristics of the style of the script and from the watermark ‘crossbow ‘ (closest type in Briquet, No. 748, year 1505).

    Неизвестен ръкопис от XVI в. от Палеографския архив на Националната банка на Гърция
    Мария Йовчева
    (Софийски университет „Св. Климент Охридски“, България)
    Евелина Минева
    (Национален и Каподистрийски университет в Атина, Гърция)

    Статията въвежда в научно обращение неизвестен славянски кодекс от ХVІ в., който се съхранява днес в Палеографския архив на Националната банка на Гърция, № MIET 64. Написан е на хартия и е конволут: състои се от два различни ръкописа, които съдържат химнографски произведения и богослужебни текстове. Въз основа на приписката на л. 70v, където стои името „дяк Йоан“ и датата 1549 г., както и поради характеристиките на писмото, се предлага хипотезата, че вторият ръкопис е дело на известния преписвач Йоан Кратовски. Неговата писаческа дейност е продължила от 1526 г. до 1583 г. и така този кодекс принадлежи към по-ранния период от творчеството му. Както се споменава в бележката на преписвача, първата част от ръкописа е предназначена за манастир, наречен „Св. Архангел“. Най-вероятно става въпрос за посветения на св. архангел Михаил Лесновски манастир, който се намира в близост до град Кратово и е имал тесни връзки с града, особено през ХV и ХVІ в. Първият ръкопис – до л. 30, е създаден от неизвестен преписвач през първата или втората четвърт на ХVІ в., както може да се съди от характеристиките на писмото и от съдържанието, но и от водния знак „арбалет“ (най-близкият тип в Briquet, № 748 от 1505 г.).

Атрибутивные признаки рукописей коллекции И. П. Лаптева

Ръкописната колекция И. П. Лаптев: атрибутивни признаци

  • Summary/Abstract

    The paper looks at the attributive features of the manuscripts, which belonged to Ivan Petrovich Laptev, a merchant, a bibliophile and one of the first significant Russian manuscript book collectors, that the author was able to identify. His collection was sold off at an auction in 1840 and is in need of reconstruction. Various markers that were preserved on Laptev’s manuscripts would help to do this. These markers include ink-made numbers (on the inner side of the top cover of the binding and inside the books), blind stamps from printing with the owner’s initials and ancient coins, various marks left by Laptev himself and his family members, as well as silk bookmarks glued to page margins.

    Ръкописната колекция И. П. Лаптев: атрибутивни признаци
    Жанна Левшина
    (Руска национална библиотека, Санкт Петербург, Русия)

    В статията се идентифицират и разглеждат атрибутивните характеристики на славянските ръкописи, принадлежали на Иван Петрович Лаптев, търговец, библиофил и един от първите значими руски колекционери на ръкописни книги. Колекцията му е продадена на търг през 1840 г. и се нуждае от реконструкция. Различни маркери, запазени върху ръкописите на Лаптев, помагат да бъде разпозната колекцията като цяло. Тези маркери включват номера с мастило (от вътрешната страна на горната корица на подвързията и отвътре на книгите), слепи печати с инициалите на собственика и с изображения на древни монети, бележки и маркиращи знаци, оставени от самия И. П. Лаптев и от членовете на неговото семейство, като копринени разделители, залепени в полетата на страниците.

Гомилия на Преображение Господне (BHG 1980) в Ягичевом Златоусте и минее четьей HAZU III c 22: один или разные переводы?*

Хомилията за Преображение Господне (BHG 1980) в Ягичевия Златоуст и чети-миней HAZU III c 22: един или различни преводи?

  • Summary/Abstract

    Opinions differ as to whether the versions of the Homily on the Transfiguration of Christ by Proclus of Constantinople (BHG 1980) in the Jagić Zlatoust and in MS HAZU III c 22 represent one translation or two. The present article examines the text-critical arguments in favour of each of these views. The comparison includes the other two known copies of the oration which are attributed by K. Ivanova to the same version. The analysis carried out gives the basis for a firm conclusion that the four copies originated from the same translation. Compared with the other sources, the text in the Jagić Zlatoust contains most variations which resulted not only from some copyist’s negligence but also from a deliberate editorial intervention. There are no text-critical arguments to confirm a closer relation between some of the copies but it can nevertheless be argued that the Jagić Zlatoust has a more isolated position in relation to the other copies in the South Slavonic tradition of this translation of the homily.

    Хомилията за Преображение Господне (BHG 1980) в Ягичевия Златоуст и чети-миней HAZU III c 22: един или различни преводи?
    Лора Тасева
    (Институт за балканистика с Център по тракология при БАН,София, България)

    В науката са изказани две различни мнения относно принадлежността към един или два превода на версиите на Хомилията за Преображение Господне (BHG 1980) в Ягичевия Златоуст и в сборник от Хърватската академия на науките и изкуствата HAZU III c 22. Настоящата статия разглежда текстологическите аргументи в полза на всяка от двете тези. В съпоставката сa включени и другите два известни преписа на проповедта, атрибуирани от Климентина Иванова към същата текстова разновидност. Извършеният анализ дава основания за категорично заключение, че и четирите преписа възхождат към един и същ превод. В сравнение с останалите източници текстът в Ягичевия Златоуст съдържа най-много отклонения, които са резултат не само на преписваческа небрежност, но и на съзнателна редакторска намеса. Не се установяват текстологични аргументи за по-тясна връзка между някои от преписите, но все пак може да се твърди, че Ягичевият препис заема по-изолирана позиция спрямо останалите в южнославянската традиция на този превод на хомилията.

Избранные статьи новоизводных Панегириков (Торжественников) в Сборнике № 28 из московского частного собрания

Избрани статии от новоизводните панигирици (тържественици) в сборник № 28 от московска частна сбирка

  • Summary/Abstract

    The author introduces a new (previously unknown) Slavic copies of a homiliary structured by the New Jerusalem Typikon: in the composite miscellany No 28 from the Moscow private collection and fragments of a panegyricon of the last quarter of the 16th century from the Moscow private collection. The article provides a brief archeographic description of the manuscript and its article-by-article composition, and publishes all the glosses and comments that reflect the textual history of panegyricons.

    Избрани статии от новоизводните панигирици (тържественици) в сборник № 28 от московска частна сбирка
    Александр Д. Паскаль
    (Руска държавна библиотека, Москва, Русия)

    Авторът въвежда в научно обращение непубликувани и досега неизвестни преписи на произведения от триодния и от минейния цикъл на Панигирика (Тържественика) в сборник конволут от последната четвърт на ХVІ век, съхранен в московска частна колекция. Статията включва кратко археографско описание на ръкописа и неговото съдържание по отделни статии, публикува всички съдържащи се в него глоси и коментари, отразяващи текстологичната история на новоизводните панигирици.

Слово на день Воздвижения Креста Андрея Критского в Милешевском панегирике

Слово за празника Въздвижение на Кръста от Андрей Критски в Милешевския панигирик

  • Summary/Abstract

    The present article proposes a study of the Slavonic translation of Andrew of Crete’s Homily on the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (BHG 443; CPG 8179) which is partially preserved in the Mileševa Panegyrikon. The study compares the second part of this oration preserved in the Mileševa Panegyrikon with its first part distributed in other menaion readers of the old redaction. The morphological and syntactical analysis leads to the conclusion that the two Slavonic versions, which are distributed in calendar collections of the old redaction, are the two parts of a single old-redaction translation of this homily and that the Mileševa Panegyrikon includes its entire text which is currently only partially preserved.

    Слово за празника Въздвижение на Кръста от Андрей Критски в Милешевския панигирик
    Цветомира Данова
    (Кирило-Методиевски научен център, БАН, София, България)

    Настоящата статия предлага проучване на частично запазения в Милешевския панигирик (сръбски ръкопис от края на ХIII и началото на ХIV в. от сбирката в манастира Цетине) славянски превод на Словото за Въздвижение на кръста от Андрей Критски (BHG 443; CPG 8179). В изследването се съпоставят текстът на запазената втора половина на това слово от Милешевския панигирик с първата половина на произведението, разпространена в други староизводни чети-минеи. Въз основа на морфо-синтактичен и лексикален анализ авторът стига до заключението, че двете славянски версии, разпространени в староизводните календарни сборници, са две части на един общ староизводен превод на това слово, а Милешевският панигирик е съдържал цялостния му текст, който сега е съхранен частично.

The Independent Transmission of Chapter 21 of the Slavic De hominis opificio in Codex Mosquensis, Russian State Archive 88 (Obolensky collection 201)

Независима трансмисия на глава 21 от славянския превод на De hominis opificio в ръкопис № 88 (колекция Оболенски 201), Руски държавен архив, Москва

  • Summary/Abstract

    The paper discusses the newly discovered fragment (No. 88, Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts, Obolensky collection f. 201, first decades of 16th c.) of Gregory of Nyssa’s De hominis opificio in Slavonic translation. It also offers an edition of the text in parallel with its Greek source, an English translation with references and biblical quotations, the Slavonic archetype, and the text of the same fragment in No. 1032, National Library in Sofia.

    Независима трансмисия на глава 21 от славянския превод на De hominis opificio в ръкопис № 88 (колекция Оболенски 201), Руски държавен архив, Москва

    Анисава Милтенова
    (Институт за литература при БАН, София, България)
    Лара Селс
    (Католически университет в Льовен, Белгия)

    Статията разглежда новооткрит фрагмент от славянския превод на съчинението De Hominis opificio от Григорий Нисийски в ръкопис № 88 (колекция Оболенски № 201) в Руския държавен архив за древни актове, от първите десетилетия на ХVІ в. Прави се първоначална характеристика на съдържанието на ръкописа. Публикацията включва също издание на текста паралелно с гръцкия му източник, превод на английски език с препратки и библейски цитати, текст на славянския архетип и текст на същия фрагмент в ръкопис НБКМ № 1032 от 1553 г., писан от Висарион Дебърски. Текстологията позволява да се направят изводи за връзките на състава на ръкопис № 88 с атонската традиция.

Тырновская литературная школа и ее отражение в книжности Сербского Деспотата

Търновската литературна школа и нейното отражение в книжовността на Сръбския деспотат

  • Summary/Abstract

    The arrival of Gregory the Sinaite to Mount Athos (c. 1326) and his relocation to the borderland between Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire, where he founded a monastery in Paroria, marked the beginning of a new chapter in the evolution of spiritual life. Gregory’s hesychast ideas attracted a substantial number of disciples from various nationalities, some of whom went on to become prominent representatives of spiritual life in their respective milieus (Patriarch Kallistos of Constantinople, Patriarch Euthymius of Tărnovo). These ideas rapidly spread among South Slavs. The writings of Patriarch Euthymius, the founder of the Tărnovo Literary School, soon became well known in the Serbian milieu and were often copied. After the fall of Tărnovo (1393) many followers of Euthymius’s literary ideas relocated to Serbian lands. Following the Parorian traditions of Gregory the Sinaite, in Serbian lands they established a series of smaller monastic communities, where they pursued translation and intellectual work; these communities are usually referred to as pustinja (desert, hermitage) precisely to emphasize their wish to avoid contacts with the wider community, both monastic and secular. Among them two names are particularly noteworthy: Constantine of Kostenets / Konstantin Kostenechki and Gregory Tsamblak. Both had enviable reputations as men of letters even before they came to the Despotate. As a layman, Constantine was close to Despot Stefan Lazarević and spent time at his court; he wrote the Explanatory Treatise on the Letters and the Vita of Despot Stefan Lazarević. Upon his arrival in Serbia Gregory became the hegoumenos (abbot) of the Dečani Monastery and penned the Service and Vita of the monastery’s founder Stefan of Dečani, as well as the Account of the Translation of the Relics of St Paraskeva from Tărnovo to Vidin and Serbia. By the end of the 14th century, a new literary genre emerged in Serbia – the paraklesis, which was based precisely on the Tărnovo literary models. Forced to leave Tărnovo and Bulgaria, the refugees who had arrived in Serbia brought the traditions of the Tărnovo Literary School and thereby had a significant impact on the development and spirit of Serbian literature in the first half of the 15th century.


    Търновската литературна школа и нейното отражение в книжовността на Сръбския деспотат
    Татяна Суботин-Голубович
    (Университет в Белград, Сърбия)

    Пристигането на Григорий Синаит от Атон и по-късно основаването на манастир в Парория (1335), бележи началото на нов етап в еволюцията на духовния живот на Балканите. Исихастките идеи на Григорий привличат значителен брой ученици от различни националности, някои от които стават видни представители на духовния живот в съответната среда (Константинополският патриарх Калист, патриарх Евтимий Търновски). Тези идеи бързо се разпространяват сред южните славяни. Творбите на патриарх Евтимий, основател на книжовната школа в Търново, скоро стават добре известни в сръбска среда и често се преписват. След падането на Търново (1393) много последователи на литературните идеи на Евтимий се преселват в сръбските земи. Следвайки парорийските традиции на Григорий Синаит, в сръбските земи се създават поредица от по-малки монашески общности, които извършват интелектуална работа; тези общности обикновено се наричат пустини именно за да подчертаят желанието им да избегнат контакти с по-широката общност, както монашеска, така и светска. Сред тях особено забележителни са две имена: Константин Костенечки и Григорий Цамблак. И двамата имат завидна репутация като творци още преди да дойдат в сръбските предели. Като мирянин Константин е близък с деспот Стефан Лазаревич и прекарва дълго време в двора му. Както е известно, пише Житие на деспота. След пристигането си в Сърбия Григорий става игумен на манастира Дечани и написва Служба и Житие на основателя на манастира Стефан Дечански, както и разказ за пренасянето на мощите на св. Петка / Параскева от Търново във Видин и в Сърбия. В края на XIV в. в Сърбия възниква нов химнографски жанр – параклис, който се основава именно на литературните модели в Търново. Принудени да напуснат Търново и България, пристигналите в Сърбия бежанци донасят традициите на книжовната школа и по този начин оказват значително влияние върху развитието и духа на сръбската литература през първата половина на XV в.

Жития болгарских святых в Стишном прологе XVI в. Cod. Kop. 19 из Собрания Йернея Копитара (НУБ, Любляна)

Жития на български светци в Стишния пролог от ХVІ в. Cod. Kop. 19 от сбирката на Йерней Копитар (НУБ, Любляна)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article analyses problems related to the literary history of the Prolog’ Vitae of the well-known Bulgarian saints Paraskeve of Epibatai / Petka of Tărnovo, John of Rila, Hilarion of Moglena (Măglen), and Michael, the Warrior of Potuka, as found in the Slavic manuscript tradition (more precisely, in the sixteenth-century Serbian hagiography), according to the Prolog in Verses for the winter half of the year (Cod. Kop. 19 from 1594, Kopitar’s collection, National and University Library, Ljubljana). The aim of the investigation is, on the basis of text-critical study of the Lives in Bulgarian, Russian and Serbian copies, to outline their specific features, genealogy, belonging to a literary school and their place in the hagiological complex, dedicated to the Bulgarian saints.


    Жития на български светци в Стишния пролог от ХVІ в. Cod. Kop. 19 от сбирката на Йерней Копитар (НУБ, Любляна)
    Елена Томова
    (Институт за литература при БАН, София, България)

    В статията се анализират проблеми на литературната история на проложните жития на известните български светци Параскева Епиватска / Петка Търновска, Иван Рилски, Иларион Мъгленски и Михаил Воин в славянската ръкописна традиция (конкретно в сръбската агиография от XVI в.), поместени в Стишен пролог за зимната половина на годината (Копитарова сбирка в Народната и университетска библиотека в Любляна, Cod. Kop. 19 от 1594 г.). Целта на изследването е на основата на текстологическото проучване на житията в български, сръбски и руски преписи да се определи тяхната специфика, генеалогия, принадлежността им към определена литературна школа и тяхното място в общия агиологически комплекс, посветен на българските светци.


Slavonic Tradition of the Apocryphal Acts of Thomas in India and the MS 1789/700 of the Dragomirna Monastery (Moldavia, Romania)1

  • Summary/Abstract

    This paper examines the Slavonic translations of the Apocryphal Acts of Thomas in India, focusing particularly on a copy included in the Dragomirna miscellany No.1789/700 dated back to the fifteenth century. The Slavonic Acts of Thomas in this codex deserves special attention, as the deviation of this manuscript from the other Slavonic copies of the same title indicate that it is arguably derived from a Greek Vorlage, different from the one other Slavonic manuscripts were made from. This paper analyzes the textual and linguistic features of the Dragomirna manuscript in comparison with other Slavonic copies and argues that the protograph of the Dragomirna copy appeared in the early Middle Bulgarian period up to the 12th–13th centuries. It is also noticed that the Dragomirna manuscript is characterized not only by the difference of Vorlage but also by the way in which the Greek text was translated. It is the translator’s effort to make a faithful translation of the Vorlage that makes this manuscript strikingly different from other Slavonic copies of the Acts of Thomas.


    Славянската традиция на апокрифните Деяния на апостол Тома в ръкопис № 1789/700 от сбирката на манастира Драгомирна (Молдова, Румъния)
    Кейко Митани
    (Университет в Токио, Япония)

    Настоящата статия разглежда славянските преводи на апокрифните Деяния на апостол Тома в Индия, като се съсредоточава по-специално върху преписа, включен в ръкопис от манастира Драгомирна № 1789/700, датиран от XV в. Текстът в този кодекс заслужава специално внимание, тъй като отликите му спрямо другите славянски преписи на същото произведение показват, че той възхожда към гръцки оригинал, различен от този, от който произхождат другите славянски преписи. В статията се анализират текстологичните и езиковите особености на ръкописа от сбирката на Драгомирна в сравнение с други славянски преписи и с текстове от Супрасълския сборник от Х–ХІ в. и се твърди, че протографът на копието от Драгомирна се е появил през ранния среднобългарски период XII–XIII век. Отбелязва се също, че ръкописът от Драгомирна се характеризира не само с разлики, дължащи се на първообраза, но и на начина, по който е преведен гръцкият текст. Усилията на преводача към верен и точен превод на оригинала, прави този ръкопис различен от другите славянски преписи на Деяния на апостол Тома.

Характеристика языка Деяния апостола Фомы в рукописи НИМ24*

Езикова характеристика на Деянията на апостол Тома в ръкопис НИМ24

  • Summary/Abstract

    The topic of the article concerns the issue of the presence of traces of language archaisms in texts, emerged in an early state of the Old Bulgarian literary practice but preserved in later copies. The object of research is the apocrypha Acts of Thomas the Apostle, based on the copy in the Serbian manuscript NHM24. The grammatical peculiarities in the text are the special subject of research. Even when the copy is centuries old or the text has been edited, traces of the proto text are kept to a certain degree. In the Acts of Thomas the Apostle are registered obvious grammatical archaisms that can be found it the text only if it has emerged in a time when they had still been active in the Old Bulgarian literary language.

    Езикова характеристика на Деянията на апостол Тома в ръкопис НИМ24
    Мария Спасова
    (Великотърновски университет „Св. св. Кирил и Методий“, България)

    Темата на статията е свързана с проблема за наличието на следи от езикови архаизми в текстове, възникнали на ранен етап от старобългарската книжовна практика, но запазени в късни преписи. Обект на изследване е апокрифът Деяния на апостол Тома по преписа му в сръбския ръкопис НИМ24. Предмет на изследване са граматическите особености в текста. Дори когато преписът е отдалечен с векове от времето на появата си или ако текстът е бил подлаган на редактиране, следи от прототекста се съхраняват в различна степен. В Деяния на апостол Тома се регистрират несъмнени граматически архаизми, които е възможно да присъстват в текста само ако той е възникнал по време, когато те все още са били активни в старобългарския книжовен език.

К вопросу о соотношении текстов Новгородской и Устюжской Кормчих книг

Към въпроса за съотношението на текстовете на Новгородската и на Устюжската кръмчая

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article is devoted to the analysis of the textual and linguistic features of the penitentiary texts contained in two Kormčie: the Novgorod Kormčaja 1282 (GIM, Synodal Collection, № 132) and Ustjug Kormčaja (RSL, Rumjancev Collection № 230, 13th–14th century). The penitential texts “The Typikon of the Monastery of St John of Pantelleria”, the penitential rules of Basil the Great and of Theodore Studite
    (“O ostanceh cerkovnyh”) and “Rules for Monks” are examined. It is noted that all these texts were given in both Kormčie in the same translations; however, their texts were edited to various degrees, including language. It is concluded that, when examining a Kormčaja, it is necessary to take into account the heterogeneity of its composition and to carry out the analysis not comprehensively, but article by article. As a result of the study, it can be said that the texts of some penitential texts are presented in an older version in the Ustjug Kormčaja, and others indicate the archaic version in the Novgorod-Varsonof’ev group.

    Към въпроса за съотношението на текстовете на Новгородската и на Устюжската кръмчая
    Галина С. Баранкова
    (Институт за руски език, РАН, Москва, Русия)

    В статията се разглежда въпросът за съотношението на протографите на покайните текстове, представени в Новгородската (1282) и в Устюжката кръмчая (ХІІІ–ХІV в.). В проучването се привличат данни от Устава на манастира Св. Йоан Пантелерийски, от Правилата на Василий Велики за епитимиите, от Правилата на Теодор Студит „За монасите, които пропускат Божествената литургия“ („О останцех церковных”) и компилацията „Правила за монасите“ („Правила о черноризцах”). Анализират се текстологичните и езиковите особености на паметниците. Подчертава се, че всички текстове за покайни практики са дадени в кръмчиите в един и същи превод, но текстовете са били редактирани в различна степен, включително езиково. Установява се, че повече архаични четения се съдържат в Устава на Йоан и в Правилата на Василий Велики в редакцията на Устюжката кръмчия. Статията на Теодор Студит съответства повече на гръцкия оригинал в Новгородската кръмчия, а в Устюжката е претърпяла значителни промени. „Правилата за монасите“ са представени в Устюжката кръмчия в ранна версия, а в Новгородската кръмчия този паметник е претърпял значителна редакция (съкращаване, комбиниране на няколко правила в едно). Заключението е, че при проучването на паметниците е необходимо да се вземе предвид хетерогенността на състава и да се извърши анализът не комплексно, а статия по статия.

Заметки о месяцесловах русских Часословов XV в.1

Бележки за месецословите в руските часослови от ХV век

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article deals with textual features of five Menologies as a part of so-called Great Horologia of the 15th century. The division of these Menologies into two groups is established. The first group reflects the features of the Menologies that go back to the Russian translation of the Jerusalem Typicon of the middle of the 14th century. The manuscripts of this group come from the greatest monastic centers, namely the Trinity Lavra of St Sergius and the St Joseph’s Monastery near Volok Town. They show that the older Russian translation of the Jerusalem Typicon, in its complete form known in the only two manuscripts, had a greater distribution in Russia than was previously believed. The Menology of the printed Horologion published by Schweipolt Fiol in 1491 attests to the prominence of the older Russian translation of the Jerusalem Typicon in Western Russia as well. The second group goes back to the late Russian version of the Jerusalem Typicon of 67 chapters. This version supersedes the Menology of the older Russian translation of the Jerusalem Typicon in the 16th century.


    Бележки за месецословите в руските часослови от ХV век
    Татяна В. Пентковская
    (Московски държавен университет, Москва, Русия)

    В статията са разгледани текстологичните особености на месецословите в пет преписа на часослови от ХV в. Установено е разделянето на тези месецослови на две групи. Първата група отразява особеностите на текста на месецослова в руски превод според Йерусалимския устав от средата на XIV в. Преписи от тази група произхождат от големи монашески центрове, а именно Троице-Сергиевата лавра и Йосифо-Волоколамския манастир. Те показват, че по-старият руски превод на Йерусалимския типик, известен като цяло само в два екземпляра, е бил по-широко разпространен в Русия, отколкото се смяташе по-рано. Месецословите в отпечатания часослов на Швайполт Фиол (Schweipolt Fiol) от 1491 г. свидетелстват за популярността на по-стария руски превод на Йерусалимския устав в Западна Русия. Втората група възхожда към месецослова на късното руско издание на 67 глави от Йерусалимския типик. Тази версия през ХVІ в. замества месецословите от по-стария руски превод на Йерусалимския типик.

(Traces of the Eusebius’ Canonical Tables in Medieval Slavonic Manuscripts of the Four Gospels – Preliminary Notes)

Се ѹбо поѱаннымъ канонѡⷨ скаꙁанїе стаже мъ повѣсть с есть ... (Следите на Евсевиевите канонични таблици в славянски четириевангелия – предварителни бележки)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article is an attempt to answer the question why the so-called Eusebius’ Canon Tables of concordance, widespread in all other linguistic traditions (Greek, Latin, Georgian, Armenian, etc.) are missing in the Slavic four gospels until the 14th century. Glagolitic and Cyrillic codices are considered and special attention is paid to the small number of examples with indications of concordance in the margin, found only in the Codex Zographensis and in two Russian Four Gospels manuscripts from the 15th century. The placement of the concordance in the inner margin of the Glagolitic codex is explained by the influence of the Latin tradition, where this is common practice. The lack of Eusebius’ canons in the Slavonic one is probably a result of the fact that the Slavic translation of the gospel text appeared relatively late, in the second half of the 9th century, when in Byzantium Eusebius’ canons from a tool of hermeneutic analysis gradually became a liturgical marker.

    Се ѹбо поѱаннымъ канонѡⷨ скаꙁанїе стаже мъ повѣсть с есть ...
    (Следите на Евсевиевите канонични таблици
    в славянски четириевангелия – предварителни бележки)
    Аксиния Джурова, Вася Велинова
    (Център за славяно-византийски проучвания „Проф. Иван Дуйчев“,
    София, България)

    Статията е опит да се отговори на въпроса защо в славянските четвероевангелия до ХІV в. липсват т. нар. Евсевиеви канонични таблици на конкорданса, широко разпространени във всички други езикови традиции. Разглеждат се глаголически и кирилски кодекси и се обръща специално внимание на малкия брой примери с указания за конкорданс в полетата, открити единствено в Зографското глаголическо четвероевангелие и в две руски четвероевангелия от ХV в. Направен е обстоен преглед на особеностите на византийската традиция. Поместването на цифрите на конкорданса в страничното поле на глаголическия кодекс се обяснява с влиянието на латинската традиция, където това е обичайна практика. Липсата на Евсевиеви канони в славянската вероятно е резултат от факта, че славянският превод на евангелския текст възниква сравнително късно, във втората половина на ІХ в., когато в самата Византия Евсевиевите канони от инструмент на херменевтичен анализ се превръщат постепенно в литургичен маркер.

The Last Judgment Scene in the Prophet Elijah Church (1550) in Sofia: Non-traditional Elements and Athonite Influences

Сцената Страшния съд в църквата „Св. пророк Илия“ (1550) в София: нетрадиционни елементи и атонски влияния

  • Summary/Abstract

    The composition of the Last Judgment in the church of Prophet Elijah (1550) in Iliyantsi (Sofia) was the first in Bulgaria in its new, thematically expanded model introduced by the Cretan school in the monasteries on Mount Athos and on the island in the Ioannina lake (1530s–1540s). Just several years later, the new elements such as the Dream of Daniel and the image of the poor man were included. The artist has not only transferred and interpreted the latest novelties for the 16th century, but has also added to and enriched the picture of the Last Judgment with unique images such as the personifications of the planets and the Zodiac, images of the prophets David and Solomon, the Heavenly Jerusalem and the conversation of the Theotokos with Archangel Michael in heaven. The image of an icon of Christ Pantokrator at the scales with sins also remains without a parallel and difficult to interpret. The numerous novelties in the iconography of the Iliyantsi church, introduced for the first time several years earlier on Mount Athos, may only be due to very active and direct relations between Sofia and Mt. Athos during the 16 th century.

    Сцената Страшния съд в църквата „Св. пророк Илия“ (1550) в София:
    нетрадиционни елементи и атонски влияния
    Ралица Русева

    (Институт за изследване на изкуствата при БАН, София, България)

    Композицията на Страшния съд в църквата „Св. Пророк Илия“ (1550) в Илиянци (София) за първи път в България представя нов, тематично разширен иконографски модел, въведен от Критската школа в манастирите на Света гора и на острова в Янинското езеро през 30-те – 40-те години на ХVІ в. Само няколко години след това в Илиянци се включват новите елементи като Сънят на пророк Даниил и образът на сиромаха. Зографът не само пренася и интерпретира последните нововъведения за XVI в., но прибавя и обогатява картината на Страшния съд с уникални образи като тези на персонификациите на планетите и зодиакалните знаци, образите на пророците Давид и Соломон, на Небесния Йерусалим и разговора на св. Богородица с архангел Михаил в Рая. Без паралел и трудно за разтълкуване остава изображението на икона на Христос Пантократор, поставена върху везните за измерване на греховете.
    Стилово живописта върху фасадата на Илиянската църква може да се разглежда като отделен паметник от стенописите в наоса. В иконографско отношение обаче, цялостната програма на наоса също е белязана от последните нововъведения на Критската школа. Стенописите от 1550 г. в Илиянския манастир разгръщат широко поле за интерпретация, тъй като паметникът е „междинен“ – в него се наслагват две художествени тенденции: първата е свързана с живописта на Охридско-Костурския регион от ХІV–ХV век, а втората представя новите явления в балканската живопис от 30-те – 40-е години на ХVІ в., дело на представителите на Критската школа. Множеството нововъведения в иконографията в Илиянската църква, които за първи път са реализирани няколко години по-рано на Света гора, могат да се дължат само на много активни и директни връзки между София и Света гора.
    Живописта от 1550 г. в Илиянската църква е основен средищен паметник между изкуството в светогорските манастири и по-късните паметници от Западна България и Северна Македония от края на ХVІ и началото на ХVІІ в.


Constantin-Cyril and (Soviet) Language Planning

Константин-Кирил и (съветското) планиране на езика

  • Summary/Abstract

    The present paper shortly dwells upon the role played by Saint Cyril in the politically driven discourse of later epochs, with particular reference to the Soviet “linguistic constructors” (jazykovye stroiteli) in the twenties and thirties of the past century. Starting from an interesting article by R.O. Jakobson, published in 1945, it traces some striking parallels between Cyril’s invention of the first Slavic alphabet and language planning activity, with respect to the problem of alphabet choice, in different times and cultural contexts. The construction of a symbolic meaning around the figure of Cyril has given rise, in the course of time, to different and stimulating approaches and interpretations.

    Константин-Кирил и (съветското) планиране на езика
    Виторио Спрингфилд Томелери
    (Държавен университет на Мацерата, Италия)

    Настоящата статия накратко се спира на ролята на св. Кирил в политически водения дискурс през по-късните епохи, с особено внимание към съветските „езикови строители“ през двадесетте и тридесетте години на миналия век. Започвайки от интересната публикация на Роман Якобсон от 1945 г., в статията се проследяват някои поразителни паралели между създаването от св. Кирил на първата славянска азбука и дейностите по планиране на езикови политики спрямо проблема с избора на азбука през различни времена и съответен културен контекст. Изграждането на символично значение около фигурата на Кирил поражда с течение на времето различни и стимулиращи подходи и интерпретации.

Translating Etymologies: The Versio Slavica of Theodoret of Cyrrhus’ Commentaries on the Song of Songs

Превод на етимологии в славянската версия на коментарите на Теодорит Кирски върху Песен на песните

  • Summary/Abstract

    The paper discusses a medieval Slavonic translation of Theodoret of Cyrrhus’ commentary of the Song of Songs and particularly the approach of the translator when he needed to render the etymological explanations of the exegete. It is hypothesized that Theodoret’s etymologies might have been one of the stimuli for Konstantin Kostenečki to use this method of explanation in the Treatise on the Letters

    Превод на етимологии в славянската версия на коментарите
    на Теодорит Кирски върху Песен на песните
    Маргарет Димитрова
    (Софийски университет „Св. Климент Охридски“, България)

    В статията се анализират подходите на средновековния славянски преводач при предаване на етимологиите, с които Теодорит Кирски си служи, когато тълкува Песен на Песните. Изказва се предположение, че етимологиите на Теодорит може да са били един от стимулите за Костантин Костенечки да използва този метод в „Сказание изявлено о писменех“, макар че те не са били непосредственият му извор.

Образ св. Николая Софийского в его пространном житии — авторские стратегии

Образът на св. Николай Софийски в неговото пространно житие – авторски стратегии

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article has as its object the investigation of the Life of St Nicholas of Sofia which was written by Matthew the Grammarian in the 16th century. First, the image of the saint is observed and his type is determined – he is a martyr. On the basis of this, the nominations are analysed and, more precisely, the epithets, their positioning and frequency in the text are examined. The selected examples in the article prove that the artistic labels used by the author are some sort of motivation for the normativeness of the saint’s image. An idea is alsoemphasized, that the author’s choice is related to the specific stages in the life of the Sofia martyr and is closely connected to the composition and the plot of the whole work.

    Образът на св. Николай Софийски в неговото пространно житие – авторски стратегии
    Мая Иванова
    (Кирило-Методиевски научен център при БАН, София, България)

    Статията изследва Житието на св. Николай Софийски, написано от Матей Граматик през ХVI в. В нея се разглежда образът на светеца, като на първо място се извежда типологизацията му на светец от мъченически тип. На тази база се проследяват номинациите, но най-вече – епитетите, и тяхното позициониране и честотност в текста. Посредством избрани примери се доказва, че художествените определения, с които си служи авторът, служат за мотивация за нормативността на образа на светеца. Подчертана е също идеята, че авторовият подбор е съобразен с конкретните етапи от живота на софийския мъченик и е пряко свързан с композицията и изграждането на сюжета.

Some New Data on the Literary Activity of Samujil Bakacˇycˇ: Preliminary Remarks

Нови данни за литературната дейност на Самуил Бакачич (предварителни бележки)

  • Summary/Abstract

    Samujil Bakačyč was an Athonite man-of-letters who worked in the last quarter of the 17th century and was famous for his translations into Church Slavonic, most of which are known from single autographs. Among the works he translated, there were two of the most popular Greek anthologies – Thesauros by Damaskenos Stoudites (Venice, 1557/8) and Hamartolon soteria by Agapios Landos (Venice, 1641). While Bakačyč’s version of the latter, and especially of its third part – Miracles of The Theotokos – gained great popularity among the South Slavs, his 1691 translation of the Thesauros, although declared by him in a title page, has been so far known as partial and including a few vitae. The article aims to present two newly identified autographs of Samujil Bakačyč. They reveal some interesting details from the textual history and dissemination of the cycle of The Theotokos’ Miracles and shed light on the question about the real scope of his translation of the Thesauros

    Нови данни за литературната дейност на Самуил Бакачич
    (предварителни бележки)

    Диляна Радославова
    (Институт за литература при БАН, София, България)

    Самуил Бакачич е атонски книжовник, който работи през последната четвърт на XVII в. и е известен с преводите си на църковнославянски език, повечето от които познати от единични автографи. Сред преведените от него произведения са две от най-популярните гръцки антологии – Съкровище от Дамаскин Студит (Венеция, 1557/8) и Спасение на грешните от Агапий Ландос (Венеция, 1641). Докато версията на Бакачич на последното съчинение и особено на третата му част – Чудесата на св. Богородица, придобива голяма популярност сред южните славяни, неговият превод на Съкровище от 1691 г., макар и обявен от него в заглавна страница, досега е известен частично и включващ няколко жития. Статията има за цел да представи два новооткрити автографа на Самуил Бакачич. Те разкриват някои интересни подробности от текстовата история и разпространението на цикъла от Чудесата на св. Богородица и хвърлят светлина върху въпроса за реалния обхват на превода на Съкровище.

Pagan Bulgaria as Featured in the Russian Chronograph

Езическа България, отразена в Руския хронограф

  • Summary/Abstract

    The information about Bulgarians in the Russian Chronograph cover the period from their settlement in the Balkans to their fall under Ottoman domination, with the sources of information traceable to translations of Byzantine chronicles in a Bulgarian environment. The information about pagan Bulgaria is presented on different ways – it is an independent “kingdom” only after Christianisation, while earlier reports of Bulgarians are part of the history of Byzantium. There are no essential differences in the ways Bulgarian history has been described in the individual redaction of the Chronograph, but the way in which it has been interpreted by the Russian scribes is interesting.

    Деница Петрова
    (Институт за исторически изследвания при БАН, София, България)

    В Руския хронограф сведенията за българите обхващат периода от заселването им на Балканите до падането им под османска власт, като известията възхождат към преводи на византийски хроники, направени в българска среда. Сведенията за езическа България са представени по различен начин – тя е самостоятелно „царство“ едва след Покръстването, по-ранните известия за българите са част от историята на Византия. Няма съществени разлики в начина, по който е описана българската история в отделните редакции на Хронографа (версията от 1512 г.), но е интересен начинът, по който тя е интерпретирана от руските книжовници, което заслужава внимание.

Recognizing Handwritten Text in Slavic Manuscripts: a Neural-Network Approach Using Transkribus

Создание и использование исторических корпусов славянских письменных памятников

Creation and Using of Historical Corpora of Slavonic Manuscripts

  • Summary/Abstract
    The requirements for historical corpora of medieval texts 1) are determined by properties of the data and the historical-linguistic, textological and linguo-textological tasks to be solved; 2) and should be realized with the help of special tagging, processing procedures, query parameters and retrieval demonstrations. The corpus should a) have metadata concerning both texts and manuscripts, and involving both linguistic and analytical tagging; b) support the rendering of documents (facsimile and transcription), concordances, lists, and comparison of subcorpora data; c) simplify graphic-orthographic variation during data search and visualization; d) provide tools both for processing and searching linguistic material and its further analysis according to traditional methods; and e) support problem description and resolution by applying corpus methods that engage with the quantity, distribution, co-occurrence, and variation of linguistic units in big data arrays. The realization of these requirements is demonstrated on a subcorpus of three copies of chronicles (Laurentian, Hypatian, Radzivilovsky) from the historical corpus project “Manuscript” (

Studies of the Old Church Slavonic Menaion: The State of the Art and Some Opportunities for Development Using Computational Tools

The Pseudepigraphal Prophecies on the Virginal Birth: From the Slavonic, Greek, and Georgian to the Second Temple Jewish Background

  • Summary/Abstract
    The study is dedicated to the prophecies on the virginal birth of the Messiah ascribed to the Old Testament prophets other than Isaiah with his famous Isaiah 7:14 LXX. Such prophecies are collected within a florilegium put into the mouth of archdeacon Stephanus in some recensions of the Passio Stephani. The “pre-Stephanic” origin of this florilegium remains unknown. The relevant recensions are BHG 1649d and 1649h with the Slavonic version slightly different but very similar to them, as well as the (unknown in Greek) Georgian recension whose earliest manuscript is dated to 864 AD (whereas the earliest Greek manuscript is of the 10th century). The prophetic florilegium in Georgian is shorter than in Greek/Slavonic but preserves some older features. The prophecies are either explicitly mentioning the Virgin or without any mention of Virgin at all but dedicated to a “stone/rock”. Therefore, the second group is somewhat surprising. Nevertheless, it goes back to the messianic prophecy about the rock in Zion ascribed to Joshua and preserved in the Dead Sea Scrolls (4Q522, fr. 9, col. ii), which would have been easily re-edited as referring to the Virgin. Indeed, in the Georgian, a prophecy explicitly mentioning the Virgin is ascribed to Joshua. The Greek/Slavonic florilegium does not mention Joshua but ascribes the same prophecy to Nathan. Under the name of Nathan, it became especially popular. It is quoted in the Slavonic The Prophecy of Solomon (its 13th-cent. Greek original is lost) and represented at a ninthcentury fresco in the Sabereebi cave monastery in Georgia (the first publication of this fresco is provided in the article). In the Greek/Slavonic recension, this prophecy of Nathan quotes, in addition to the properly prophetic part, a little studied story of Nathan preserved within the Sondergut of recension D of the Testament of Solomon).

Biblical Quotations in the Athonite Translation of the Homilies Against the Aryans by St. Atanasios of Alexandria

  • Summary/Abstract
    The article is devoted to the Athonite translation of the Orations against the Arians by Athanasius of Alexandria, preserved in the so-called Ragagolnik of Epiphanius Slavinetsky. Late copy of the translation is saved in a manuscript from the Synodal collection 112 (No.360). from the 17th century, State Historical Museum, Moscow. The author makes observations on the language in a manuscript from the Pogodin collection 968, the Russian National Library, St. Petersburg and No.360 from the GIM confirms the general genesis of the copies in MS No. 360 and it. Biblical quotations testify that the translation from Mount Athos was made directly from the Greek language, without reference to the canonical books of the 10th century, but in accordance with the orthographic and grammatical standards of the Hesychastic Reform in 14th century. The translator knows and uses the translation of Konstantin of Preslav, but the similarities between the Old Bulgarian and the Athonite translations are mostly in the quotations of the New Testament. The differences between the Russian and Serbian versions are mainly due to the corrections made by Epiphanius Slavinetsky or the reference to Epiphanius of a protograph of another Greek tradition used on Mount Athos.

Їѡсифь Прѣкрасни: The post-biblical Development of the Image of Joseph, Son of Jacob, in the Slavonic Tradition

  • Summary/Abstract
    This paper examines the development of the image of the biblical Joseph (Genesis 37-50) in the Slavonic tradition. Although Joseph appears in the Slavonic Bible and the Christian tradition in many forms, e.g. as a righteous martyr, pious believer, merciful caretaker of the poor, ideal ruler, and as the prefigurement of Jesus Christ, the image of Joseph as a Christian spiritual expert has not been studied methodically. Based on the denomination that medieval Slavic Christians gave to Joseph, i.e. Їѡсифь Прѣкрасни, which literally means, “the most beautiful Joseph,” I argue it refers to his inner beauty, which makes him radiate with divine light and turns him into a spiritual expert in the interpretation of the messages from God. Slavs took over the biblical traditions about Joseph from the Greek translations before enriching them with their own creativity and spirituality. The fact that Їѡсифь Прѣкрасни is clearly the translation of Ἰωσὴφ ὁ Πάγκαλος, and that the Syriac History of Joseph does not exist in Slavonic, precisely because it had never existed in Greek despite its literary quality, supports this premise.

Intertextuality in Medieval Slavonic Literature: Apocalypse of Pseudo- Methodius and The Legend of the Twelve Fridays

New Late Church Slavonic Version of the Revelation of Methodius Patarensis

‘Apocrypha’ and ‘Pseudepigrapha’ as ‘Popular Literature’: Moses Gaster’s Contributions in Conversation with Current Debates

  • Summary/Abstract
    The aim of the article is to contribute to “current issues” via critical evaluation of past (pre-disciplinary) scholarship. It experiments with ways to assess the contribution of nineteenth(-early twentieth) century “intellectuals”, examining the contribution of Moses Gaster to the broad area of “apocrypha” as a case study. Moses Gaster (1856–1939) already worked on compositions which only recently have been “formally” included in the first volumes of the anthologies of “apocrypha” in English translations More Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (MOTP, 2013) and More New Testament Apocrypha (MNTA, 2016). His very broad approach to “apocrypha” stands in contrast to the narrow compartmentalisation into different “fields” (such as Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, New Testament Apocrypha, Patristics, Hagiography, etc) which became common in the twentieth century (especially in Biblical Studies, less so in other historical philological disciplines which retained a broader understanding of apocrypha).

Liturgical Theology and Church (Byzantine- Slavic) Music and HymnoGraphic Practice

  • Summary/Abstract
    The purpose of this research is to reveal the influence of Hesychastic teachings on the creation, development and the liturgical application of the church music and hymnography, through the discussion of different problems, based on written and oral testimonies, preserved till nowadays. This purpose is also achieved through an interpretation of the source materials (the liturgical, musical and hymnographic works) in the context of Orthodox belief and the teaching of the Holy Fathers, closely connected to the liturgical tradition of the Church in the 14th–15th century in terms of the teaching of Hesychasm. The depth of meaning of the musical phenomena from the tradition of the Middle Ages has been revealed based on the theological cognitive foundation – the foundation of belief. This research is based on data, connected with the liturgical Greek and Slavonic tradition and also with the mystical perception and interpretation of the musical and hymnographic works in the 13th–15th century – in the period of blossoming forth of the theological cognition of Hesychasm. The testimonies of one of the most important theological, musical and hymnographic resources from this period have been used involved in this research.

Axiological Aspects of Concept “Nation” in the History of Bulgarian Language and Traditional Culture

  • Summary/Abstract
    This paper examines the semantic usage and verbalization of the concept of nation in the history of Bulgarian language and traditional culture. It uses linguistic facts from 9th-11th century Old Bulgarian manuscripts, original writings of Patriarch Euthymius and 17th century Modern Bulgarian damascenes. The system of words and phrases that present the concept of nation and its distribution in different cultural contexts are analyzed in relation to medieval Christian ideas, the cultural situation in the 17th century and the new ideas of modern times. The most important features of the concept of nation in traditional culture are presented by Bulgarian proverbs.

Axiological Aspects of Concept “Justice” in the History of Bulgarian Language and Culture

  • Summary/Abstract
    The paper examines the semantic realizations and verbalizations of the concept of justice in the history of Bulgarian language and culture. It studies linguistic facts from 9th-11th century Old Bulgarian manuscripts and 17th century Modern Bulgarian damascenes. The system of words and phrases that present the concept of justice and its distribution in different cultural contexts are analyzed in relation to Christian ideas in the Middle Ages, the cultural situation in the 17th century and new ideas of the period before the National Revival. The most important feature of the concept of justice is the precept that God is always a fair judge. However, human behavior is dualistic: one can be just and righteous and abide by Christian requirements and another can be unjust and act against God according to his own interest.

Dietetic Texts in Medieval Slavonic Literature. Preliminary Remarks

New Developments in Tagging Pre-modern Orthodox Slavic Texts

  • Summary/Abstract

    Pre-modern Orthodox Slavic texts pose certain difficulties when it comes to part-of-speech and full morphological tagging. Orthographic and morphological heterogeneity makes it hard to apply resources that rely on normalized data, which is why previous attempts to train part-of-speech (POS) taggers for pre-modern Slavic often apply normalization routines. In the current paper, we further explore the normalization path; at the same time, we use the statistical CRF-tagger MarMoT and a newly developed neural network tagger that cope better with variation than previously applied rule-based or statistical taggers. Furthermore, we conduct transfer experiments to apply Modern Russian resources to pre-modern data. Our experiments show that while transfer experiments could not improve tagging performance significantly, state-of-the-art taggers reach between 90% and more than 95% tagging accuracy and thus approach the tagging accuracy of modern standard languages with rich morphology. Remarkably, these results are achieved without the need for normalization, which makes our research of practical relevance to the Paleoslavistic community.

Electronic Edition and Linguistic Annotation of Slavic Fragments

Терминология в палеославистике и создание сети между существующими цифровыми корпусами

Terminology in Palaeoslavistics and Set up Networking between Existing Digital Corpora

Название и самоназвание в номинативных комплексах рукописных книг XIV–XIX веков (на материале Отдела рукописей Российской государственной библиотеки)

Title and Self-title in Nominative Complexes of Manuscripts 14th–19th Centuries (Based on the Material of the Manuscript Department of the Russian State Library)

Проложные жития в средневековой южнославянской книжности

The Prologue Vitae in the Medieval South-Slavonic Literature

Textological Notes on De Christo et Antichristo by Hippolytus of Rome in the Greek and Slavonic Manuscript Tradition

Sv. Kliment Ohridski: His Tombstone and its Inscription

  • Summary/Abstract

    In the Presveta Bogoroditsa Perivlepta church in Ohrid the tombstone of St Kliment Ohridski is preserved. This large stone slab, with several inscriptions from the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries, remained there, while the holy relics of St Kliment have been transferred back to its original place – the church, built by the saint himself (completely rebuilt in 2001–2002). Until recently not much attention has been given to the tombstone. The paper offers a new reading of the main inscription, illustrated by the first contemporary picture and a new drawing made out of it, thus correcting many mistakes in the earlier publications.

Comparison of Four Medieval Bulgarian Inscriptions by Letter Frequency

  • Summary/Abstract

    This article compares the letter frequencies of four old Bulgarian inscriptions: the Samuel inscription of 993, the Samuel inscription of Voden, the Bitola inscription of Ivan Vladislav and the Tărnovo inscription of Ivan Asen II. We establish the proximity of the letter frequencies of these inscriptions and thus obtain an argument in favor of the view that the Voden inscription is a product of the same scribal tradition and orthography, and of the same epoch, to which both Samuel’s of 993 and Bitola’s inscriptions belong. The impressive ‘frequency proximity’ of the Voden and Bitola inscriptions is used to offer the hypothesis that the Samuel Dynasty’s royal administration has had a consistent tradition of writing and orthography.

Аріевъ ледъ

Ares Ice

  • Summary/Abstract

    The paper discusses the translation of Ἄρειος πάγος into Slavonic, which until the late seventeenth century is almost invariably Аріевъ ледъ. It is suggested that although this does not correctly render the original meaning of the Greek, translators (and others, including their Greek contemporaries) did not necessarily perceive place names as literally meaningful. Аріевъ ледъ was thus simply the established Slavonic name for the Areopagus, and known as such to Slavonic writers. The principle place where it occurs is in the Acts of the Apostles, where it is used consistently, and there is a varied body of commentary in Slavonic attached to this passage, which is discussed in detail. The use of the toponym in a number of non-Biblical texts is also traced.

The Earliest Slavonic Translation of the Song of Songs from Greek: A Possible Influence from the Vulgate?

Byzantines, Bulgarians and Serbs in the Vita of Saint Vladimir in the Gesta Regum Sclavorum

The Isaiah Code: Highlights in the History of a Catena in Slavic Tradition

  • Summary/Abstract

    This study seeks to trace out the structure of the Book of Prophet Isaiah with commentaries and to explore what that structure reveals about the text in some manuscripts of the East Slavonic and South Slavonic traditions. There are three conclusions made as a result of the present study. Firstly, the analysis of the structure and the identification of the readings in Catena Slavonica in Isaiam shows a translation of a catena which occupies an intermediate position between the Catena in Isaiam by John Drungarios and the one by Andrew the Presbyter whichever is the earliest. The CSI resembles both. Secondly, the value of the CSI should not be underestimated, because it includes a translation of scholia by Theodulus whose work is now almost entirely lost. Therefore the CSI could provide new evidence for the content of the lost Byzantine original of Theodulus’ Commentary on Isaiah. Thirdly, the comparison of the numerals in the margin of РНБ F.I.461 with the sequence and number of the biblical pericopes and relevant scholia in the Russian manuscripts clearly and unequivocally demonstrates that although F.I. 461 is the earliest evidence of Preslav translation in a Tărnovo redaction, it is still a single link in the chain of the Slavonic tradition and has a many shortcomings compared to the CSI in the Russian tradition.

The Parable of the Unicorn in the Story of Barlaam and Josaphat

Двойная рецепция при формировании княжеской службы: служба св. Александру Невскому как модель

A Double Reception in the Formation of a Princely Service: The Service of St Alexander Nevsky as a Model

  • Summary/Abstract

    The Service of St Alexander Nevsky was written by Monk Michael of the Roždestvenskij monastyr’ (Nativity monastery) in Vladimir. He was one of the writers, belonging with the circle of Metropolitan Macarius, who composed princely services (and sometimes vitas) for new Russian saints. Most of the services are compilations of verses and hymns and more or less exact borrowings (and sometimes compositions according to models). In the Service of St Alexander Nevsky, the most refined of Monk Michael’s works, the hymnographer utilized various models to combine them into one canon, thus giving it the colour of an original work. It is important to add that Monk Michael used Slavic translations instead of original Greek texts, a fact proved by textological comparison. The service, dedicated to a saint prince, canonized in the sixteenth century, was the only one included in the Menaion. Together with the especial respect and veneration of the new saint, it was one of the reasons why his service became a model of other princely services. It is worth noting that instead of hymns, originally borrowed for the new service, exactly the adapted hymns to St Alexander were taken as standard for princely services, thus allowing a double reception of the translated hymns. For the purpose of the investigation the author analyzes the services of St Roman of Ugleč, St Daniel of Moscow, the Service of Finding of his Relics including, as well as the service to St Dowmant of Pskov.

Chronological Layers in Translated Texts: Observations on a Sticheron of Archangel Michael

Неизвестный пергаментный отрывок кириллического Евангелия апракос полного из библиотеки Духовной семинарии Госианум в Ольштыне

An Unknown Parchment Fragment of the Cyrillic Gospel (Full Lectionary) from the Seminary’s Library in Olsztyn

  • Summary/Abstract

    The author introduces a new (previously unknown) parchment fragment (one leaf) of the Full Gospel lectionary from the Library of the Hosianum Seminary of the Archdiocese of Warmia in Olsztyn (Poland). The article presents a concise description and a general characteristic (with textological analysis) of the fragment along with its publication (with three photos). Cyrillic fragment of the Gospel manuscript, which was used together with Latin one to bind several early printed Latin books, is dated to the end of fourteenth or beginning of fifteenth century, but not later than the year 1420. The article presents also a short history of the Library of the Hosianum Seminary as far as it concerns the history of the Cyrillic Gospel fragment.

Двуязычные индексы в палеославистичной лексикографической традиции как инструмент изучения истории перевода в Slavia Orthodoxa

The Bilingual Indexes in the Paleoslavistic Lexicographical Tradition as a Tool of Studying the History of Translation in Slavia Orthodoxa

К вопросу о переводе агиографического синаксаря (простого пролога) в свете новейших исследований

Towards the Question: When and Where the Simple Prologue Was Translated in the Light of the New Studies

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article examines the current hypotheses about time and place of translation of so-called Simple Prologue (hagiographic Synaxarium) in the Slavonic environment. Special attention is paid to the latest studies in the field. As additional arguments to answer the question are given the data on Russian and South Slavonic (mostly Bulgarian) commemorations in the early version of the Prologue. These data allowed to reject the existing hypotheses and to support the conclusion that the Simple Prologue was translated in the time of Samuil of Bulgaria in Archbishopric of Ohrid at the end of tenth – beginning of eleventh century. The translation was made very soon after the occurrence of Synaxarium in Byzantium and was due to the liturgical necessity.

Reconsidering the Textual Transmission of the Slavonic Quaestiones adAntiochum ducem

  • Summary/Abstract

    The present contribution addresses questions concerning the textual history of the Slavonic translation of the Quaestiones ad Antiochum ducem (CPG 2257) and challenges some of the positions taken by William Veder in his recent edition (2016) of this eratopocritic collection. A selection of key text witnesses (among which the Izbornik of 1076, the Troitskij sbornik and the Laurentian florilegium of 1348) are examined in order to distinguish the different textual layers and to arrive at a better understanding of the text’s transmission history. It is argued that there is no firm proof for the existence of a full corpus of QAD questions in Slavonic prior to the thirteenth century and that the textual tradition of the QAD is marked by progressive expansion and continuous conflation.

The Greek Tradition of Hippolytus’ Commentarii in Danielem and the Slavonic Translation

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article highlights the Greek manuscripts, containing Hippolytus of Rome’s Commentarii in Danielem, the history of their research and their content, as well as the relation among them and the Slavonic translation. The author reveals all Greek and Slavonic sources, known today, and demonstrates how the two versions of the text correspond to each other. The main focus is placed on the cod. Meteoron 573, of the tenth century, proven to be the closest and mostly related to the Slavonic translation. This matter was profoundly revealed by comparison of contents, titles and structure of the texts of both versions, which is briefly presented in this paper.

Multiple Translations and Their Context. Praxis de stratilatis in the Medieval South Slavic Tradition

  • Summary/Abstract

    My paper focuses on the earliest account of St Nicholas of Myra (Praxis de stratilatis) and its adaption in the South Slavic literary tradition. Praxis de stratilatis dates back to the fourth century and it was the only narrative of the saint for more than three centuries. Even after the eight century when the local cult grew and other narratives about the saint appeared Praxis de statilatis remained one of the most authoritative texts in the literature and the art. The text was translated not only once but twice at the dawn of Old Bulgarian literature, probably as early as the tenth century. The appearance of more than one translation is considered as a witness of the specificity of the literature translated from Greek in the Old Bulgarian tradition, on the one hand, and of the needs and attitude of the readership, on the other. Main hypothesis of my paper is that different kinds of manuscripts provoked the double translations of the text. These are, on the one hand, the Panegyricomartyrologia (known as Minejno­Triodni panegyritsi in the Slavic tradition), which are calendar miscellanies consisting of narratives and eulogies for both cycles of feasts – the movable and the immovable, and, on the other hand, the Menologia (known as Čet’i­Minei), consisting of texts only for the immovable feasts. The textual and contextual analysis of the preserved witnesses of both translations of Praxis de stratilatis shows the cultural and literary needs of the readership which turned out to be important for copying and disseminating the translated text.

A Byzantine Epigram in the Pictorial Cycle of Akathistos Hymn for the Virgin from the Narthex of Kremikovtsi Monastery St George (1493)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The research paper presents an unpublished inscription in Greek language from the narthex of the Kremikovtsi Monastery St George near Sofia – an epigram of the famous Byzantine poet Theodoros Prodromos, who lived at the court of the Komnenian Dynasty in the twelfth century. Being part of the scene Flight into Egypt and – more precisely, – being written in the scroll of a female figure – a personification of the city, no parallel of this inscription has been attested so far in post-Byzantine art. The only other scroll like this has been discovered in the church of the Seslavtsi Monastery St Nicholas near Sofia, but the text there is probably just a decorative detail. A complete study of the preserved part of the damaged inscription is conducted, together with a discussion about its linguistic and literary specifics in the context of the high Byzantine poetry and the Biblical exegesis. The aim is to outline and to describe the raison d’être of this religious epigram (ἱερὸν ἐπίγραμμα) as an expressive instrument for direct communication with the audience through its main stylistic feature – the dialogue between the Saviour and the layman, between the divine and the human nature of Christ. The poetical form chosen by Theodoros Prodromos immediately draws the viewers’ attention and it compels them to reflect upon the scene. Theodoros Prodromos’ epigram in the Kremikovtsi Monastery offers an exceptional and significant proof that the connection of Balkan art to the achievements of the Christian culture of the former Byzantine empire was still alive in the fifteenth century.

Linguistics vs. Digital Editions: The Tromsø Old Russian and OCS Treebank

  • Summary/Abstract

    This article provides a description of the Tromsø Old Russian and OCS Treebank (TOROT), which, along with its parent treebank, the PROIEL corpus (built by members of the project Pragmatic Resources in Old Indo-European Languages), is the only existing treebank of Old Church Slavonic, Old East Slavic and Middle Russian texts. The TOROT is a part of a larger family of treebanks of ancient languages which all use the PROIEL open-source annotion web tool and annotation schemes. In this article we present principles and selected problems at several levels of analysis in the TOROT, and then briefly discuss ways that corpus linguists and edition philologists can fruitfully collaborate and complement each other.

Recycling the Metropolitan: Building an Electronic Corpus on the Basis of the Edition of the Velikie Minei Čet’i

Исторический корпус как цель и инструмент корпусной палеославистик

Diachronic OCS Corpus as an Object and an Instrument of Corpus Palaeoslavitic

Copies of Filip Stanislavov’s Abagar (Rome, 1651)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article discusses the currently available information on the extant copies of Filip Stanislavov’s Abagar, printed in Rome by the Propaganda Fide in 1651. Starting from Božidar Rajkov’s 1979 edition, which lists fifteen known copies and their presumed location, the article offers information on several copies that are not reported by Rajkov. These include copies in London, Paris, and Uppsala, the latter in the form of a scroll. In addition, the current location of most of the earlier known copies has been verified, and new information on a number of copies is presented: for example, the copy formerly located in Brussels is currently preserved at the Bibliothèque Diderot in Lyon, whereas the two German copies seem to have been lost.

Re-Reading the Vita Constantini: the Philosopher in Constantinople

Scholia from Gregory of Nyssa’s Apologia in Hexaemeron in the Fourteenth-Century Slavonic Hexaemeron Collection

The Kievan Manuscript of Synopsis Basilicorum major

The Neapolitan Wall Calendar From a Medieval Slavic Perspective

The Fourteenth-Century Slavonic Version of the Longer and Shorter Rules of Saint Basil: Text of the Questions and Remarks

  • Summary/Abstract

    In this paper the text of the questions in the Longer Rules (Ὅροι κατὰ πλάτος, Regulae fusius tractatae, PG 31, 901–1052) and the text Shorter Rules (Ὅρoι κατ᾿ ἐπιτομήν, Regulae brevius tractatae, PG 31, 1052–1305, CPG II 2875 Asceticon magnum sive quaestiones) of St. Basil in their medieval Slavonic version are presented according to Zografou 3, a manuscript, dating from the 14th century. Some observations are made about the text of the questions on the basis of comparison on orthographical and lexical level between Zografou 3 and three other manuscripts: British Library Additional MS 27442, National Library in Sofia 1045 (Slepčenskij sbornik) and Zografou 126, dating from the same period. The quotations from the Scripture in the text of the questions are an object of special interest. The results of the comparative analysis give a good reason to suppose that Zografou 3 preserves the oldest text in comparison to the other three witnesses.

Motifs of Bulgarian History in Chronologia Magna and Satyrica Historia by Paulinus of Venice

  • Summary/Abstract

    This paper contains the first publication of printed excerpts related to Bulgarian history from two historical compilations by Paulinus of Venice. Chronologia Magna sive Compendium is presented according to lat. 4939, National library, Paris (14th c.) and Satyrica historia – according to Ms 445, Jagiellonian library, Cracow (15th c.). As the study and analysis of these manuscripts demonstrate, the compendia contain many accounts related to Bulgarian history – from the formation of the Bulgarian state in 681 up to the dynastic marriage of the Latin emperor of Constantinople Henry in 1213. All of the motifs from Bulgarian history, which Paulinus selected and included, are significant and fully aligned with the aims, which he had set himself in the prologue to Satyrica historia. These motifs are not merely a compilation of successes and failures, but are to form a body of well researched information, which will serve to edify posterity, based on the historical experience of the Roman and other kingdoms. Interpreting the evidence in Paulinus’ accounts in light of his stated approach, it appears that after their appearance on the European stage (681) the Bulgarians played the role of the defenders of Christian Europe (717) and the armament of God (811 г., 1205 г.). Their joining the Christian family of the European people is also recounted (865) through the example of the determination and beatitude of the Bulgarian ruler who defended the new faith even against his own son. Additionally, the Bulgarians are described as participants in events related to Byzantine history (705), as well as being adversely affected by the expansion of the unconverted Hungarians (907, 970, 1003). The accounts related by Paulinus are re-workings of earlier sources he was apparently well acquainted with. It can be argued that the present publication identified those sources with significant accuracy. The mistakes in the dating that occur in Paulinus’ compilations are often attributable to him connecting events to significant historical episodes or historical personalities, around which he builds a whole chapter or rubric of the narration. Sometimes the anachronisms are due to the sources he used. The study of the context, in which motifs related to Bulgarian history are placed allowed me to identify the sources of the material and the method of compilation employed by Paulinus of Venice. Last but not least, the analysis of the content of the motifs allowed me to establish that Dandolo mainly used information from Historia satyrica, but perhaps also consulted with Chronologia magna. He included in his chronicle almost all the motifs from the works of Paulinus, with the exception of the chronological note on the death of Nicephorus I Genik and the episode on Walter Senzavohir. Thus, the publication of the fragments from Historia satyrica and Chronologia magna clarified the origin of those passages in the chronicle of Andrea Dandolo about which D. Angelov wrote that they are connected to earlier historiographical sources but their origins are in need of further investigation.

Text and Context: Story about the Handsome Joseph in the Miscellanies with Mixed Content

Semantics of the Book’s Macro-Compositional Level? A Visualisation Method of Analysis

  • Summary/Abstract

    The publication opens for discussion an approach to macrostructural analysis of certain calendar miscellanies with selected readings which belong to the Medieval Balkan tradition. The author proposes that the selection of feasts and saints’ commemorations, as well as the order of the corresponding texts might be interpreted as determined by certain overall theme(s) / thematic fields and could be „read“ on the level of the book’s content. This approach was encouraged by the outcomes of a study on the calendar-thematic composition of Damaskenos Studites’s Thesauros and its transformations in Bulgarian literary tradition in the 16th-18th century. Aiming at a search for similar preceding models, the survey makes comparison on macro-compositional level between some panegyrica, such as Mihanović Homiliar and Jagić Zlatoust of the late 13th – early 14th century, the 1358/59 Miscellany of German, and the 16th-century Panegyricon No. 85 from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. In addition, the study explores the relevancy of a method for visualisation, which can be supportive of a thematic analysis.

A Short Note on the Glagolitic Ornament in Pamvo Berynda’s Triod Cvetnaya (Kiev 1631)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article draws attention to two lesser known lines written in Glagolitic which are part of the Epilogue to Pamvo Berynda’s Triod Cvetnaja, printed in Kiev in 1631. Thanks to their typographic realisation, these two lines seem to have been mainly considered „an ornament“ or a „cryptographic“ element of the text in older literature. The article presents the Glagolitic text in standard Unicode encoding, so it becomes electronically searchable as such, along with a transliteration and a translation. It turns out that the Glagolitic text is nearly identical to the self-descriptions famout printer Pamvo Berynda had used before (although in Cyrillic). Another question put forth in the paper is the provenience of the actual printing types used in Kiev in 1631. A comparision shows that the letters look similar – but not identical – to printing type used around the same time Italy (Rome, Venice) or by Primož Trubar in the century before. The typographic quality of the Kievan types is, however, inferior.

Употребление причастий в Енинском апостоле

Use of Participles in the Eninski Apostol

Divine Chrysostom Liturgy from Manuscript D. Gr. 143 (AD 1368) in the Ivan Dujčev Centre for Slavo-Byzantine Studies

Hellenophilism in Georgian Literature as Cultural Orientation towards Byzantine Thought: Ephrem Mtsire‘s Cultural Orientation. Part I

  • Summary/Abstract

    This paper is part of a more extensive study on the medieval Georgian writer and translator Ephrem Mtsire who continued the traditions with his works that gradually acquired clearly Hellenophile character, thus beginning the formation of Hellenophilism as a trend in Georgian literature. Hellenophilism is not considered in this paper only in its narrower linguo-literary aspect which meant attaining the formal equivalence to the original. Hellenophilism is regarded here in its wider sense of special interest of non-Greek scholars towards the thinking processes of Byzantine culture of different periods. The study of both aspects reveals the positive influence of Hellenophilism on Georgian literature. Hellenophilism as cultural orientation begins with Ephrem Mtsire‘s literary activities.

Illuminated Manuscripts from the Family of the Hippiatrika Codex (Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Phillipps 1538)

  • Summary/Abstract

    Two manuscripts discussed in this paper – the Homilies of Gregory the Theologian GIM Syn. gr. 63 (Vlad. 144) and the Four Gospels ÖNB Theol. gr. 240 – were examined for a special study, the results of which were published in 2009 and 2013. They both are unique examples of tenth-century Byzantine book illustration, remarkable for their unusual ornamental style. The study revealed the decoration, datable to the 940s, as a work of one and the same artist, conditionally referred to as the ‘Master of the Arabesque Style’. His ornamental style is unique in the history of the Byzantine manuscript book, only existing for a short period and evidently corresponding to the activity of this one illuminator. The manuscript Berlin, Phillipps 1538, which contains a Treatise on Horse Medicine, has appeared in many publications. However, its artistic decoration has not yet received the elucidation it merits. After a new research using colour reproductions it transpired that many of the Berlin codex folios were actually decorated by the same artist as the Vienna and Synodal manuscripts. The assumption that one artist devised the three manuscripts under scrutiny brings to the conclusion that the Vienna Gospels should be classed among manuscripts from the Imperial scriptorium and dated to the period from 945 to 959. With regard to the development of minuscule script, the scribe responsible for the Hippiatrika obviously was regarded as a distinguished calligrapher, whose earliest activities should be sought in the first quarter of the century. The archaic characteristics found in the codex are in accordance with the illumination. Therefore the Berlin manuscript should be used as a reference for the attribution of manuscripts from the second half of the tenth century.

Jan Stradomski. Rękopisy i teksty. Studia nad cerkiewnosłowiańską kulturą literacką Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego i Korony Polskiej do końca XVI wieku. [Krakowsko-Wileńskie studia slawistyczne. T. 10.] Kraków 2014

Jan Stradomski. Manuscripts and texts. Church Slavonic studies of the literary culture of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Polish crown to the end of the sixteenth century. [Cracow-Vilnius Slavic studies. T. 10.] Krakow 2014

A Slavonic Translation of the Loci Selecti of St John Damascene

  • Summary/Abstract

    The paper contains research work and publication of Slavonic translation of Loci Selecti of St John Damascene (a catena on the Pauline Epistles, the compilation of which is ascribed to St John Damascene). No Slavonic version has previously been identified: that is to say, the existence of fragments of such a translation has twice been noted, but on neither occasion were they recognised for what they are (Archimandrite Amfilochij and Michael Bakker). There is a clear connection between the fragments of the Slavonic version of the Loci selecti and the Second Redaction text of the First Epistle to Timothy, and each must be studied in the context of the other. The copy in the Karakallou Apostolos No 294 is in the centre of the publication, in which the redaction of the text of the epistle is the same as that of the manuscripts cited by Ampfilochij, namely the redaction we now know as the Second or Preslav Redaction of the text. The Second Slavonic Redaction of the Apostolos is considered to have originated in Eastern Bulgaria in the tenth century, and is much better represented by lectionaries than by continuous texts. The author proves that the Second Redaction of the Slavonic Apostolos as we now know it is a composite text: I Timothy was translated separately from the rest. The paper threw new light on the history of the translation of New Testament in Old Church Slavonic.

Unicode 2C1A: Glagolitic "Pe": Fact or Fiction?

  • Summary/Abstract

    Recent developments in Unicode have made it possible for a large variety of historic characters of the Slavic languages to be correctly encoded in Unicode. However, there are some areas which require additional work, and for other problems, several solutions co-exist. A puzzling problem arises when texts contains obvious errors, especially so if one single text is the only available source for the claimed existence of a specific letter. The Glagolitic "Pe" character is such a character, and because it represents such a unique case, it paper will present a fresh look at the original source (the famous "Munich Abedarium") and its interpretation.

“Kliment Std” – a Free Font for Slavic Medievalists

  • Summary/Abstract

    The font Kliment Std is a result of the work of the author on a number of fonts used in medievalistic publications – they include Glagolhic fonts, fonts in Old-Bulgarian Cyrillic, special diacritic signs and fonts with decorative arrangement. Although they are well-known from the academic editions, they were not widely accessible for the Slavistic community and this situation is improved by the distribution of the presented font. It can be found in the official Web site of the author and can be legally used for academic purposes, publications and studies. The main limitations are: 1) not to be used in editions and events which violate the copyright; 2) the user does not have the right to change, modify or rename this product. The font was developed on the basis of the standard Unicode and it is distributed in format TTF. This makes it usable in the system MS Windows, as well as in the system Mac OS X. it contains supplements: Latin alphabet, Cyrillic, Glagolithic, Greek, diacritics, and special punctuation marks. As the content and the location of the Old-Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet in the Unicode space has not yet been established, the font has the possibility to evolve, in order to adequately reflect all requirements of this standard.

Editing Manuscript Fragments

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article presents a first attempt of a publication of fragments from medieval Slavonic written records in electronic form – a problem which so far has not found a satisfactory solution. Two manuscripts from the National Library on Budapest (Szechenyi) have been studies, described and realized as electronic publications. The first one (MS Duod. Eccl. Slav. 2) is Glagolhic, from XI-XII century and contains Vita of Simeon Stulpnik. The second one (Fragm. Eccl. Slav. 3) includes seven parchment fragments from XIII-XIV century with partially conserved Cyrillic text by the Apostle. The possibilities to deliver the data and metadata from the fragments are examined. As a result the most precise and close to the original electronic publication can be realized. Subject of discussion are the rules created in the framework of the Text Encoding Initiative, which although oriented to a wide range of different kinds of texts, do not reflect the specificity of the medieval manuscripts. Regarding the fragments, of paramount importance is the necessity in the model of description the degree of preservation of the text, depending on the preservation of the material on which it has been conserved, to be noted. As the fragment does not contain the whole text of the primarily existing manuscript but only part of it, the hierarchy of the computer description should reflect this peculiarity, as at the same time it well presents the separate lines in the text, about the separation of words, about the preserved (or missing) letter symbols and the punctuation. Meanwhile a place for marking the identification of the biblical text should be provided. Discussed in detail are the possible approaches to the elements, their characteristics and order in the publication – from the highest to the lowest level at the description of the text and its articles. Some questions connected with Unicode have been presented, in the context of the author’s view that not only the encoding of the texts is important, but also the adequate representation of their position in the writing margin, for example, referring to the rubrics and their writing in the margins. Enclosed is an illustration of the acquired approach – publication of fragment No. 1 (its front side, Romans 1:8-14).

The Scribal Centre at the Village of Adzhar in the 17th century: New Data

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article offers new attributions and localizations of ten Adzhar monuments on the basis of a paleographic analysis. The scribal activity in the centre is viewed in comparison with that of the rest of the calligraphic centers in the Bulgarian lands in the XVII century. The analysis of the repertoire of Adzhar monuments in the light of the new material brings about the conclusion that in the second half of the century the settlement became a literary and educational centre of a parish type, where the book copying was directly bound with the preparation of priests.

The Segmentation of the Erotapokriseis of Pseudo-Kaisarios as a Source for the History of Its Slavonic Translation

  • Summary/Abstract

    The Slavonic translation of the Erotapokriseis of Pseudo-Kaisarios was made in the first quarter of the X century, but was kept only in Russian manuscripts from XV-XVII century, where it is distributed under a new title and with considerable absences of texts in the beginning and end of the work. The article is dedicated to the composition of the questions and answers in the Erotapokriseis. Examined is the possibility to obtain data about the translation itself, as well as its Greek prototype, from the organization and segmentation of the Slavonic text. The data studied in the article show that the translation of the Erotapokriseis was made completely, without eliminating parts of the text of adding others. The exposed arguments lead to the conclusion that the reason for the absences of text in the Russian copies is a physical fault in their Bulgarian protograph.

Desiderata for an Electronic Collation of Medieval Slavic Gospel Texts

  • Summary/Abstract

    Comparative studies of medieval Church Slavonic Gospel manuscripts – whether broad-scale taxonomies of textual traditions, identifications of manuscript families, or analysis of features of a single manuscript – require a large corpus of manuscripts from which a subset can be selected for comparison. This paper proposes some desiderata for an electronic collation of medieval Slavic manuscripts and discusses some anticipated philological and methodological issues that would need to be resolved during the development of the collation with computer tools. The project is base on the material from medieval menologies or calendars of saints in the Slavic Gospels.

    Subject: Language studies

Incorporation of Old Church Slavonic Card Files into a Corpus

  • Summary/Abstract

    The creation of a multimillion card index of the Old Church Slavonic language, intended for linguistic research of the Prague group of the Old Church Slavonic dictionary, was carried out manually for several decades. The purpose of this work is to include linguistic data on paper cards in computer form. The task is not only to transfer linguistic data (lemma, forms, Greek correspondence and translation) but to make available the information contained in a card and to provide a reverse reconstruction of the OCS texts from which extracts were given.

    Subject: Language studies

Electronic Student Editions of Medieval Slavic Texts

  • Summary/Abstract

    The report examines the possibilities of electronic publication of mediaeval Slavic texts of various types, intended for teaching at the university. A distinction is made between the critical edition and editions designed for the practical gradual acquiring of linguistic and literary facts. Such publications should fill the gap that exists concerning the mediaeval Slavic texts in electronic form and provide an opportunity to visualize samples of manuscripts. This will increase the opportunity to learn about the essence of Slavic heritage.

    Subject: Language studies

Doxae of South Slavic Saints in Medieval Serbian Literature (Kopitaqr collection, Ljubljana, Slovenia)

  • Summary/Abstract

    Doxae are an organic part of Slavic hymnography. They are especially important for the cults of the South Slavic saints Petka Tărnovska, Stefan Dechanski, Sava Srbski, Simeon Srbski, etc., as in most cases they are original works by Slavic authors. The article summarizes the results of the archeographic and palaeographic work of the author in 1996-2002 in the Kopitar Collection in Ljubljana, Slovenia, exporting unknown and unstudied data from the manuscripts.

    Subject: Language studies

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