Language and Literature Studies

Recognizing Handwritten Text in Slavic Manuscripts: a Neural-Network Approach Using Transkribus


Создание и использование исторических корпусов славянских письменных памятников

Creation and Using of Historical Corpora of Slavonic Manuscripts

  • Summary/Abstract
    The requirements for historical corpora of medieval texts 1) are determined by properties of the data and the historical-linguistic, textological and linguo-textological tasks to be solved; 2) and should be realized with the help of special tagging, processing procedures, query parameters and retrieval demonstrations. The corpus should a) have metadata concerning both texts and manuscripts, and involving both linguistic and analytical tagging; b) support the rendering of documents (facsimile and transcription), concordances, lists, and comparison of subcorpora data; c) simplify graphic-orthographic variation during data search and visualization; d) provide tools both for processing and searching linguistic material and its further analysis according to traditional methods; and e) support problem description and resolution by applying corpus methods that engage with the quantity, distribution, co-occurrence, and variation of linguistic units in big data arrays. The realization of these requirements is demonstrated on a subcorpus of three copies of chronicles (Laurentian, Hypatian, Radzivilovsky) from the historical corpus project “Manuscript” (manuscripts.ru).

Studies of the Old Church Slavonic Menaion: The State of the Art and Some Opportunities for Development Using Computational Tools


The Pseudepigraphal Prophecies on the Virginal Birth: From the Slavonic, Greek, and Georgian to the Second Temple Jewish Background

  • Summary/Abstract
    The study is dedicated to the prophecies on the virginal birth of the Messiah ascribed to the Old Testament prophets other than Isaiah with his famous Isaiah 7:14 LXX. Such prophecies are collected within a florilegium put into the mouth of archdeacon Stephanus in some recensions of the Passio Stephani. The “pre-Stephanic” origin of this florilegium remains unknown. The relevant recensions are BHG 1649d and 1649h with the Slavonic version slightly different but very similar to them, as well as the (unknown in Greek) Georgian recension whose earliest manuscript is dated to 864 AD (whereas the earliest Greek manuscript is of the 10th century). The prophetic florilegium in Georgian is shorter than in Greek/Slavonic but preserves some older features. The prophecies are either explicitly mentioning the Virgin or without any mention of Virgin at all but dedicated to a “stone/rock”. Therefore, the second group is somewhat surprising. Nevertheless, it goes back to the messianic prophecy about the rock in Zion ascribed to Joshua and preserved in the Dead Sea Scrolls (4Q522, fr. 9, col. ii), which would have been easily re-edited as referring to the Virgin. Indeed, in the Georgian, a prophecy explicitly mentioning the Virgin is ascribed to Joshua. The Greek/Slavonic florilegium does not mention Joshua but ascribes the same prophecy to Nathan. Under the name of Nathan, it became especially popular. It is quoted in the Slavonic The Prophecy of Solomon (its 13th-cent. Greek original is lost) and represented at a ninthcentury fresco in the Sabereebi cave monastery in Georgia (the first publication of this fresco is provided in the article). In the Greek/Slavonic recension, this prophecy of Nathan quotes, in addition to the properly prophetic part, a little studied story of Nathan preserved within the Sondergut of recension D of the Testament of Solomon).

Biblical Quotations in the Athonite Translation of the Homilies Against the Aryans by St. Atanasios of Alexandria

  • Summary/Abstract
    The article is devoted to the Athonite translation of the Orations against the Arians by Athanasius of Alexandria, preserved in the so-called Ragagolnik of Epiphanius Slavinetsky. Late copy of the translation is saved in a manuscript from the Synodal collection 112 (No.360). from the 17th century, State Historical Museum, Moscow. The author makes observations on the language in a manuscript from the Pogodin collection 968, the Russian National Library, St. Petersburg and No.360 from the GIM confirms the general genesis of the copies in MS No. 360 and it. Biblical quotations testify that the translation from Mount Athos was made directly from the Greek language, without reference to the canonical books of the 10th century, but in accordance with the orthographic and grammatical standards of the Hesychastic Reform in 14th century. The translator knows and uses the translation of Konstantin of Preslav, but the similarities between the Old Bulgarian and the Athonite translations are mostly in the quotations of the New Testament. The differences between the Russian and Serbian versions are mainly due to the corrections made by Epiphanius Slavinetsky or the reference to Epiphanius of a protograph of another Greek tradition used on Mount Athos.

Їѡсифь Прѣкрасни: The post-biblical Development of the Image of Joseph, Son of Jacob, in the Slavonic Tradition

  • Summary/Abstract
    This paper examines the development of the image of the biblical Joseph (Genesis 37-50) in the Slavonic tradition. Although Joseph appears in the Slavonic Bible and the Christian tradition in many forms, e.g. as a righteous martyr, pious believer, merciful caretaker of the poor, ideal ruler, and as the prefigurement of Jesus Christ, the image of Joseph as a Christian spiritual expert has not been studied methodically. Based on the denomination that medieval Slavic Christians gave to Joseph, i.e. Їѡсифь Прѣкрасни, which literally means, “the most beautiful Joseph,” I argue it refers to his inner beauty, which makes him radiate with divine light and turns him into a spiritual expert in the interpretation of the messages from God. Slavs took over the biblical traditions about Joseph from the Greek translations before enriching them with their own creativity and spirituality. The fact that Їѡсифь Прѣкрасни is clearly the translation of Ἰωσὴφ ὁ Πάγκαλος, and that the Syriac History of Joseph does not exist in Slavonic, precisely because it had never existed in Greek despite its literary quality, supports this premise.

Intertextuality in Medieval Slavonic Literature: Apocalypse of Pseudo- Methodius and The Legend of the Twelve Fridays


New Late Church Slavonic Version of the Revelation of Methodius Patarensis


A Possible Anti-Jewish Trace in the Figure of the Antichrist in the Early Christian Patristic Literature and its Connection to the Slavonic Studies?

  • Summary/Abstract
    The article traces back all early patristic pieces of evidence of the nature and appearance of the Antichrist, summarizes out his mentions in the Old Testament and New Testament and gives additional information for the calculation of the number 666. A peculiar Anti-Jewish trace is highlighted, as well as the reasons for its presence in the early Christian literature is discussed. The paper also focuses on De Christo and Antichristo by Hippolytus of Rome and points out its importance for the patristic studies and their connection to the Slavonic manuscript tradition.

‘Apocrypha’ and ‘Pseudepigrapha’ as ‘Popular Literature’: Moses Gaster’s Contributions in Conversation with Current Debates

  • Summary/Abstract
    The aim of the article is to contribute to “current issues” via critical evaluation of past (pre-disciplinary) scholarship. It experiments with ways to assess the contribution of nineteenth(-early twentieth) century “intellectuals”, examining the contribution of Moses Gaster to the broad area of “apocrypha” as a case study. Moses Gaster (1856–1939) already worked on compositions which only recently have been “formally” included in the first volumes of the anthologies of “apocrypha” in English translations More Old Testament Pseudepigrapha (MOTP, 2013) and More New Testament Apocrypha (MNTA, 2016). His very broad approach to “apocrypha” stands in contrast to the narrow compartmentalisation into different “fields” (such as Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, New Testament Apocrypha, Patristics, Hagiography, etc) which became common in the twentieth century (especially in Biblical Studies, less so in other historical philological disciplines which retained a broader understanding of apocrypha).
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Литературный феномен «переписывания» (‘rewriting’) в Исторической Палее и Авраамовом цикле славянских сборников

The Literary Phenomenon of ‘Rewriting’ in the Palaea Historica and the Cycle About Abraham in Slavic Collections

  • Summary/Abstract
    In 1961, Geza Vermes coined the term “rewritten Bible,” which originally was meant as a designation for antique and medieval Jewish legends about the patriarch Abraham in different ways transforming the text of chapters 11 to 25 of Genesis. Later this term was assigned to a broader circle of Jewish texts and more recently it is often in use in scholarly works on Early Christian literature. At the same time, there is no doubt that the legends about Abraham are still one of the best examples of the rewriting method. This is true especially for Abrahamic texts which were in use since 9th century in Byzantium and among Southern (partly also Eastern) Slavic peoples. The paper deals with rewriting methods used in the Palaea Historica (including its Slavonic translations) and in the texts of Abraham’s cycle contained in many Slavic miscellanies (sborniki), which probably also had Greek origins.

Liturgical Theology and Church (Byzantine- Slavic) Music and HymnoGraphic Practice

  • Summary/Abstract
    The purpose of this research is to reveal the influence of Hesychastic teachings on the creation, development and the liturgical application of the church music and hymnography, through the discussion of different problems, based on written and oral testimonies, preserved till nowadays. This purpose is also achieved through an interpretation of the source materials (the liturgical, musical and hymnographic works) in the context of Orthodox belief and the teaching of the Holy Fathers, closely connected to the liturgical tradition of the Church in the 14th–15th century in terms of the teaching of Hesychasm. The depth of meaning of the musical phenomena from the tradition of the Middle Ages has been revealed based on the theological cognitive foundation – the foundation of belief. This research is based on data, connected with the liturgical Greek and Slavonic tradition and also with the mystical perception and interpretation of the musical and hymnographic works in the 13th–15th century – in the period of blossoming forth of the theological cognition of Hesychasm. The testimonies of one of the most important theological, musical and hymnographic resources from this period have been used involved in this research.

Axiological Aspects of Concept “Nation” in the History of Bulgarian Language and Traditional Culture

  • Summary/Abstract
    This paper examines the semantic usage and verbalization of the concept of nation in the history of Bulgarian language and traditional culture. It uses linguistic facts from 9th-11th century Old Bulgarian manuscripts, original writings of Patriarch Euthymius and 17th century Modern Bulgarian damascenes. The system of words and phrases that present the concept of nation and its distribution in different cultural contexts are analyzed in relation to medieval Christian ideas, the cultural situation in the 17th century and the new ideas of modern times. The most important features of the concept of nation in traditional culture are presented by Bulgarian proverbs.

Axiological Aspects of Concept “Justice” in the History of Bulgarian Language and Culture

  • Summary/Abstract
    The paper examines the semantic realizations and verbalizations of the concept of justice in the history of Bulgarian language and culture. It studies linguistic facts from 9th-11th century Old Bulgarian manuscripts and 17th century Modern Bulgarian damascenes. The system of words and phrases that present the concept of justice and its distribution in different cultural contexts are analyzed in relation to Christian ideas in the Middle Ages, the cultural situation in the 17th century and new ideas of the period before the National Revival. The most important feature of the concept of justice is the precept that God is always a fair judge. However, human behavior is dualistic: one can be just and righteous and abide by Christian requirements and another can be unjust and act against God according to his own interest.

Dietetic Texts in Medieval Slavonic Literature. Preliminary Remarks


Iskra Hristova-Shomova. Dragotin Menaion: A Bulgarian Manuscript from the Beginning of the 12th Century. Sofia: St. Kliment Ohridski University Press, 2018, 752 pp.


Korogodina, M. V. Kormčie Knigi of the 14th – First Half of the 17th Century. Vol. 1. Studies. 598 pp., 36 ills. Vol. 2. Description of Versions. 647 pp. Moscow-St. Petersburg: Al'jans-Arheo, 2017

  • Summary/Abstract
    Korogodina, M. V. Kormčie Knigi of the 14th – First Half of the 17th Century. Vol. 1. Studies. 598 pp., 36 ills. Vol. 2. Description of Versions. 647 pp. Moscow-St. Petersburg: Al'jans-Arheo, 2017
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Laudator temporis acti. Studia in memoriam Ioannis A. Božilov. Vol.1. Religio, istoria. 510 с. Vol. 2. Ius, imperium, potestas, litterae, ars et archaeologia. 636 с. Curavit Ivan Biliarsky. Sofia: IK Gutenberg, 2018.

  • Summary/Abstract
    Laudator temporis acti. Studia in memoriam Ioannis A. Božilov. Vol.1. Religio, istoria. 510 с. Vol. 2. Ius, imperium, potestas, litterae, ars et archaeologia. 636 с. Curavit Ivan Biliarsky. Sofia: IK Gutenberg, 2018.
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New Developments in Tagging Pre-modern Orthodox Slavic Texts

  • Summary/Abstract

    Pre-modern Orthodox Slavic texts pose certain difficulties when it comes to part-of-speech and full morphological tagging. Orthographic and morphological heterogeneity makes it hard to apply resources that rely on normalized data, which is why previous attempts to train part-of-speech (POS) taggers for pre-modern Slavic often apply normalization routines. In the current paper, we further explore the normalization path; at the same time, we use the statistical CRF-tagger MarMoT and a newly developed neural network tagger that cope better with variation than previously applied rule-based or statistical taggers. Furthermore, we conduct transfer experiments to apply Modern Russian resources to pre-modern data. Our experiments show that while transfer experiments could not improve tagging performance significantly, state-of-the-art taggers reach between 90% and more than 95% tagging accuracy and thus approach the tagging accuracy of modern standard languages with rich morphology. Remarkably, these results are achieved without the need for normalization, which makes our research of practical relevance to the Paleoslavistic community.

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Electronic Edition and Linguistic Annotation of Slavic Fragments


Терминология в палеославистике и создание сети между существующими цифровыми корпусами

Terminology in Palaeoslavistics and Set up Networking between Existing Digital Corpora


Text or Paratext? The Synopsis Apostolorum of Dorotheus of Tyre

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article discusses the Synopsis Apostolorum attributed to Dorotheus of Tyre, which purports to be a list of the Seventy Apostles. It gives a brief overview of the history of the text in Greek and Slavonic. In contrast to the Greek tradition, where it may be found in miscellanies of various types and also in manuscripts of the Apostolos which are provided with relatively extensive apparatus, in Slavonic it is found exclusively in Apostolos manuscripts. The redaction of the Synopsis, moreover, corresponds to the redaction of the Apostolos; there are discernible differences between the texts in each of the three Slavonic redactions in which it is represented. This indicates that it was translated as part of the accompanying text each time that the Apostolos itself was translated. This means that the Slavonic version (unlike the Greek) exists exclusively as paratext, but that this paratextual status, being dependent on the version, is not intrinsic to the work but a function of its history. This in turn points to the necessity of taking the paratext into account in any study of the text of the Bible.

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Translating the Subtleties. The Philosophical Categories in the Symeon Collection (Symeon’s Miscellany

  • Summary/Abstract

    When we study translations from classical or Byzantine Greek into Old Bulgarian, we usually encounter two aspects of the question how: firstly, the how of the linguistic rendering, the how of the translation techniques used for one term or another. The second aspect is that of evaluating the how: shall we praise or, on the contrary, express regrets in respect of the translator’s work. Besides these two inherent aspects of the question how, a third one has arisen in the last three decades in Bulgaria. We have a long tradition of translating Old Greek and Byzantine texts into Old Bulgarian, but with respect to the philosophical and theological terminology used nowadays, are we obliged to follow the patterns of the past, the forms of the language, suggested by this millennium long tradition? With respect to the formation of the Bulgarian philosophical and theological language, the Symeon’s Miscellany is an extremely important source because from f. 222 to f. 237 a range of issues is discussed as answers to questions 29 and 30. This section of the writing includes clarification of terms, categories and concepts from the classical Greek and/or the Christian philosophy and demands profound interdisciplinary research.

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Указатели названий и инципитов разделов и глав славянских списков Откровения Иоанна Богослова как поисковый аппарат и основа для изучения редакций текста 

Indexes of Names and Incipita of Sections and Chapters of the Slavonic Witnesses of the Revelation of John the Theologian as a Search Tool and a Basis for Studying Versions of the Text


Иерархическая модель гимнографической терминологии: дигитальное приложение

A Hierarchical Model of the Hymnographic Terminology: Digital Application


Название и самоназвание в номинативных комплексах рукописных книг XIV–XIX веков (на материале Отдела рукописей Российской государственной библиотеки)

Title and Self-title in Nominative Complexes of Manuscripts 14th–19th Centuries (Based on the Material of the Manuscript Department of the Russian State Library)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article defines the concepts related to the naming of written monuments in the Slavonic-Russian manuscript tradition. The definitions of basic concepts: name, self, complex nominative, nominative unit. Identified the causes, the appearance of names in different parts of the same manuscript books associated with the execution name and the self of different functions: nominative, informative, hermeneutics, didactic, testoobraznaja, aesthetic. A comparison of the concepts of title and self-title on the example of handwritten books stored in the manuscript Department of the Russian state library, the Fund of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. It is revealed that the self-name is more extensive and informative than the name, but the name, in turn, differs in structural and semantic variability. Variability of names in the composition of nominative complexes is characterized.

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Проложные жития в средневековой южнославянской книжности

The Prologue Vitae in the Medieval South-Slavonic Literature


Textological Notes on De Christo et Antichristo by Hippolytus of Rome in the Greek and Slavonic Manuscript Tradition

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article has two main focuses – first, it follows the most significant and important Antichrist myth researches, and secondly, the Greek tradition of De Christo et Antichristo by Hippolytus of Rome and the Slavonic versions of the text. The Slavonic witnesses are examined according to their omissions, additions, grammatical and morphological variations, and also some of the changes in the Bible quotations are highlighted. This work does not pretend to present new information on the Greek sources but to demonstrate how important the Slavonic translation is to the interpretation of the Greek original. The most interesting results are pointed out in the relation with the Greek text itself, where the proximity between the Greek fragment of Meteora Monastery 573 and the Slavonic tradition is presented.

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Апокрифический цикл об Аврааме в славянских сборниках смешанного содержания и в поэме Георгиоса Хумноса. (К вопросу о рецепции Исторической Палеи)

The Apocryphal Abraham’s Cycle in the Slavic Miscellanies and in the Poem of Georgios Choumnos (A Contribution to the Reception of the Palaea Historica)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The Historical Palaea was composed in Greek (approximately in the 9th century) and found a broad reception in the Slavic world. The text was not only translated more than one time into Slavonic but also reworked in such texts as the apocryphal cycle of Abraham contained in many Southern Slavonic miscellanies. The reception in the Byzantine realm was probably more limited but there is at least one important exception: a poem written in the 2nd half of the 15th century by a Cretan Georgios Chumnos. A comparison between the cycle of Abraham and the relevant part of this poem (verses 579 to 1348) shows that there are many agreements between the cycle of Abraham and Chumnos against the text of the Historical Palaea as their common Vorlage (story of Melchizedek told through direct speech; omission of circumcision of Isaac and death of Sarah; inclusion of death of Abraham omitted in the Palaea; omission of several allusions to the New Testament and many other affinities). The article deals with the question about possible explanations of some of these – partly astonishing – similarities between the texts of two different traditions.

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Daily Life and Religion: The Vienna Euchologia Project

  • Summary/Abstract

    The study of the Euchologia (singular: Euchologion), the prayer books to be used by the clergy, has long been neglected by medieval historians. This is beginning to change, as more and more scholars discover the potential of the Euchologia as a source for social history. Indeed, Euchologia contain besides Eucharistic and sacramental liturgies also prayers for various occasions of the daily life of women, men and children from various strata of society and every geographical region of the Byzantine world. Thus, the Euchologia offer a different perspective than most Byzantine written sources, which concentrate on urban, male, often ordained elites. In 2015 a new research project dedicated to the study of Euchologia was initiated at the Division of Byzantine Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. The project seeks to study Greek-language Euchologia copied up to the year 1650 and the prayers they contain.

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Vis et sapientia: Studia in honorem Anisavae Miltenova. Нови извори, интерпретации и подходи в медиевистиката

Vis et sapientia: Studia in honorem Anisavae Miltenova. New sources, interpretations, and approaches in medieval studies


Елка Мирчева. Староизводните и новоизводните сборници – преводи, редакции, преработки, книжовноезикови особености

Elka Mircheva. Old Redaction Menologia (Structured According to Studion Typikon) and New Redaction Menologia (Structured According to Jerusalem Typikon) – Translations, Redactions, Transformations, Linguistic Peculiarities

  • Summary/Abstract

    Elka Mircheva. Old Redaction Menologia (Structured According to Studion Typikon) and New Redaction Menologia (Structured According to Jerusalem Typikon) – Translations, Redactions, Transformations, Linguistic Peculiarities

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Medieval Bulgarian Art and Letters in a Byzantine Context. Edited by Elka Bakalova, Margaret Dimitrova, and M. A. Johnson. Sofia: American Research Center in Sofia, 2017, 573 pp.; ISBN 978-954-92571-0-6

  • Summary/Abstract
    Medieval Bulgarian Art and Letters in a Byzantine Context. Edited by Elka Bakalova, Margaret Dimitrova, and M. A. Johnson. Sofia: American Research Center in Sofia, 2017, 573 pp.; ISBN 978-954-92571-0-6
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Иван И. Илиев. Тълкуванието на Книга на пророк Даниил от Иполит Римски в старобългарски превод. София: Институт за литература при БАН, 2017, 425 с. ISBN 978-954-509-580-1

Ivan Iliev. The Commentary on the Book of Daniel by Hippolytus of Rome in the Old Church Slavonic Translation. Sofia: Institute of Literature, BAS, 2017, 425 pp., ISBN 978-954-509-580-1

  • Summary/Abstract

    Ivan Iliev. The Commentary on the Book of Daniel by Hippolytus of Rome in the Old Church Slavonic Translation. Sofia: Institute of Literature, BAS, 2017, 425 pp., ISBN 978-954-509-580-1

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The Earliest Slavonic Translation of the Song of Songs from Greek: A Possible Influence from the Vulgate?


Byzantines, Bulgarians and Serbs in the Vita of Saint Vladimir in the Gesta Regum Sclavorum


The Isaiah Code: Highlights in the History of a Catena in Slavic Tradition

  • Summary/Abstract

    This study seeks to trace out the structure of the Book of Prophet Isaiah with commentaries and to explore what that structure reveals about the text in some manuscripts of the East Slavonic and South Slavonic traditions. There are three conclusions made as a result of the present study. Firstly, the analysis of the structure and the identification of the readings in Catena Slavonica in Isaiam shows a translation of a catena which occupies an intermediate position between the Catena in Isaiam by John Drungarios and the one by Andrew the Presbyter whichever is the earliest. The CSI resembles both. Secondly, the value of the CSI should not be underestimated, because it includes a translation of scholia by Theodulus whose work is now almost entirely lost. Therefore the CSI could provide new evidence for the content of the lost Byzantine original of Theodulus’ Commentary on Isaiah. Thirdly, the comparison of the numerals in the margin of РНБ F.I.461 with the sequence and number of the biblical pericopes and relevant scholia in the Russian manuscripts clearly and unequivocally demonstrates that although F.I. 461 is the earliest evidence of Preslav translation in a Tărnovo redaction, it is still a single link in the chain of the Slavonic tradition and has a many shortcomings compared to the CSI in the Russian tradition.

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The Parable of the Unicorn in the Story of Barlaam and Josaphat


Двойная рецепция при формировании княжеской службы: служба св. Александру Невскому как модель

A Double Reception in the Formation of a Princely Service: The Service of St Alexander Nevsky as a Model

  • Summary/Abstract

    The Service of St Alexander Nevsky was written by Monk Michael of the Roždestvenskij monastyr’ (Nativity monastery) in Vladimir. He was one of the writers, belonging with the circle of Metropolitan Macarius, who composed princely services (and sometimes vitas) for new Russian saints. Most of the services are compilations of verses and hymns and more or less exact borrowings (and sometimes compositions according to models). In the Service of St Alexander Nevsky, the most refined of Monk Michael’s works, the hymnographer utilized various models to combine them into one canon, thus giving it the colour of an original work. It is important to add that Monk Michael used Slavic translations instead of original Greek texts, a fact proved by textological comparison. The service, dedicated to a saint prince, canonized in the sixteenth century, was the only one included in the Menaion. Together with the especial respect and veneration of the new saint, it was one of the reasons why his service became a model of other princely services. It is worth noting that instead of hymns, originally borrowed for the new service, exactly the adapted hymns to St Alexander were taken as standard for princely services, thus allowing a double reception of the translated hymns. For the purpose of the investigation the author analyzes the services of St Roman of Ugleč, St Daniel of Moscow, the Service of Finding of his Relics including, as well as the service to St Dowmant of Pskov.

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Chronological Layers in Translated Texts: Observations on a Sticheron of Archangel Michael


Неизвестный пергаментный отрывок кириллического Евангелия апракос полного из библиотеки Духовной семинарии Госианум в Ольштыне

An Unknown Parchment Fragment of the Cyrillic Gospel (Full Lectionary) from the Seminary’s Library in Olsztyn

  • Summary/Abstract

    The author introduces a new (previously unknown) parchment fragment (one leaf) of the Full Gospel lectionary from the Library of the Hosianum Seminary of the Archdiocese of Warmia in Olsztyn (Poland). The article presents a concise description and a general characteristic (with textological analysis) of the fragment along with its publication (with three photos). Cyrillic fragment of the Gospel manuscript, which was used together with Latin one to bind several early printed Latin books, is dated to the end of fourteenth or beginning of fifteenth century, but not later than the year 1420. The article presents also a short history of the Library of the Hosianum Seminary as far as it concerns the history of the Cyrillic Gospel fragment.

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Двуязычные индексы в палеославистичной лексикографической традиции как инструмент изучения истории перевода в Slavia Orthodoxa

The Bilingual Indexes in the Paleoslavistic Lexicographical Tradition as a Tool of Studying the History of Translation in Slavia Orthodoxa


К вопросу о переводе агиографического синаксаря (простого пролога) в свете новейших исследований

Towards the Question: When and Where the Simple Prologue Was Translated in the Light of the New Studies

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article examines the current hypotheses about time and place of translation of so-called Simple Prologue (hagiographic Synaxarium) in the Slavonic environment. Special attention is paid to the latest studies in the field. As additional arguments to answer the question are given the data on Russian and South Slavonic (mostly Bulgarian) commemorations in the early version of the Prologue. These data allowed to reject the existing hypotheses and to support the conclusion that the Simple Prologue was translated in the time of Samuil of Bulgaria in Archbishopric of Ohrid at the end of tenth – beginning of eleventh century. The translation was made very soon after the occurrence of Synaxarium in Byzantium and was due to the liturgical necessity.

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Reconsidering the Textual Transmission of the Slavonic Quaestiones adAntiochum ducem

  • Summary/Abstract

    The present contribution addresses questions concerning the textual history of the Slavonic translation of the Quaestiones ad Antiochum ducem (CPG 2257) and challenges some of the positions taken by William Veder in his recent edition (2016) of this eratopocritic collection. A selection of key text witnesses (among which the Izbornik of 1076, the Troitskij sbornik and the Laurentian florilegium of 1348) are examined in order to distinguish the different textual layers and to arrive at a better understanding of the text’s transmission history. It is argued that there is no firm proof for the existence of a full corpus of QAD questions in Slavonic prior to the thirteenth century and that the textual tradition of the QAD is marked by progressive expansion and continuous conflation.

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The Greek Tradition of Hippolytus’ Commentarii in Danielem and the Slavonic Translation

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article highlights the Greek manuscripts, containing Hippolytus of Rome’s Commentarii in Danielem, the history of their research and their content, as well as the relation among them and the Slavonic translation. The author reveals all Greek and Slavonic sources, known today, and demonstrates how the two versions of the text correspond to each other. The main focus is placed on the cod. Meteoron 573, of the tenth century, proven to be the closest and mostly related to the Slavonic translation. This matter was profoundly revealed by comparison of contents, titles and structure of the texts of both versions, which is briefly presented in this paper.

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Multiple Translations and Their Context. Praxis de stratilatis in the Medieval South Slavic Tradition

  • Summary/Abstract

    My paper focuses on the earliest account of St Nicholas of Myra (Praxis de stratilatis) and its adaption in the South Slavic literary tradition. Praxis de stratilatis dates back to the fourth century and it was the only narrative of the saint for more than three centuries. Even after the eight century when the local cult grew and other narratives about the saint appeared Praxis de statilatis remained one of the most authoritative texts in the literature and the art. The text was translated not only once but twice at the dawn of Old Bulgarian literature, probably as early as the tenth century. The appearance of more than one translation is considered as a witness of the specificity of the literature translated from Greek in the Old Bulgarian tradition, on the one hand, and of the needs and attitude of the readership, on the other. Main hypothesis of my paper is that different kinds of manuscripts provoked the double translations of the text. These are, on the one hand, the Panegyricomartyrologia (known as Minejno­Triodni panegyritsi in the Slavic tradition), which are calendar miscellanies consisting of narratives and eulogies for both cycles of feasts – the movable and the immovable, and, on the other hand, the Menologia (known as Čet’i­Minei), consisting of texts only for the immovable feasts. The textual and contextual analysis of the preserved witnesses of both translations of Praxis de stratilatis shows the cultural and literary needs of the readership which turned out to be important for copying and disseminating the translated text.

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A Byzantine Epigram in the Pictorial Cycle of Akathistos Hymn for the Virgin from the Narthex of Kremikovtsi Monastery St George (1493)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The research paper presents an unpublished inscription in Greek language from the narthex of the Kremikovtsi Monastery St George near Sofia – an epigram of the famous Byzantine poet Theodoros Prodromos, who lived at the court of the Komnenian Dynasty in the twelfth century. Being part of the scene Flight into Egypt and – more precisely, – being written in the scroll of a female figure – a personification of the city, no parallel of this inscription has been attested so far in post-Byzantine art. The only other scroll like this has been discovered in the church of the Seslavtsi Monastery St Nicholas near Sofia, but the text there is probably just a decorative detail. A complete study of the preserved part of the damaged inscription is conducted, together with a discussion about its linguistic and literary specifics in the context of the high Byzantine poetry and the Biblical exegesis. The aim is to outline and to describe the raison d’être of this religious epigram (ἱερὸν ἐπίγραμμα) as an expressive instrument for direct communication with the audience through its main stylistic feature – the dialogue between the Saviour and the layman, between the divine and the human nature of Christ. The poetical form chosen by Theodoros Prodromos immediately draws the viewers’ attention and it compels them to reflect upon the scene. Theodoros Prodromos’ epigram in the Kremikovtsi Monastery offers an exceptional and significant proof that the connection of Balkan art to the achievements of the Christian culture of the former Byzantine empire was still alive in the fifteenth century.

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Elena N. Boeck. Imaging the Byzantine Past: The Perception of History in the Illustrated Manuscripts of Skylitzes and Manasses. Cambridge University Press, 2015, 314 pp., ill. ISBN 978-1-107-08581-7

Elena N. Boeck. Imaging the Byzantine Past: The Perception of History in the Illustrated Manuscripts of Skylitzes and Manasses. Cambridge University Press, 2015, 314 pp., ill. ISBN 978-1-107-08581-7


Julian Petkov. Altslavische Eschatologie. Texte und Studien zur apokalyptischen Literatur in kirchenslavischer Überlieferung (Texte und Arbeiten zum neutestamentlichen Zeitalter, Bd. 59). Tübingen: Francke, 2016, 495 Seiten. ISBN-10: 3772085318

(Julian Petkov. Altslavic eschatology. Texts and Studies on Apocalyptic Literature in the Church of the Slavonic Tradition (Texts and Works on the New Testament Age, vol. 59). Tübingen: Francke, 2016, 495 pages. ISBN-10: 3772085318


Маргарет Димитрова. Средновековни молитви за родилки. Критическо издание [Margaret Dimitrova. Srednovekovni molitvi za rodilki. Kritičesko izdanie]. Sofia: Heron Press, 2014, 229 pp. ISBN 9789545803451

Margaret Dimitrova. Medieval prayers for new mothers. Critical Edition [Margaret Dimitrova. Srednovekovni molitvi za rodilki. Kritičesko izdanie]. Sofia: Heron Press, 2014, 229 pp. ISBN 9789545803451


Мария С. Мушинская. Изборник 1076 года: текстология и язык [Marija S. Mušinskaja. Izbornik 1076 goda: tekstologija i jazyk]. Sankt-Petersburg: Nestor-Istorija, 2015, 480 pp. ISBN 978-5-4469-0825-7

Maria S. Mushinskaya. The 1076 Miscellany: textology and language [Marija S. Mušinskaja. Izbornik 1076 goda: tekstologija i jazyk]. Sankt-Petersburg: Nestor-Istorija, 2015, 480 pp. ISBN 978-5-4469-0825-7


По пути славянской печатной книги на Балканах и в Юго-Восточной Европе

Along the way of the Slavic printed book in the Balkans and South-Eastern Europe

  • Summary/Abstract

    Ivan Petrov. Od inkunabułów do pierwszych gramatyk. Konteksty rozwoju bułgarskiego języka literackiego koniec XV – początek XVII wieka. Łódź: Wydawnictwo uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2015, 268 pp. ISBN 978-83-7969-792-2

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Анета Димитрова. Златоструят в преводаческата дейност на старобългарските книжовници [Aneta Dimitrova. Zlatostrujat v prevodačeskata dejnost na starobălgarskite knižovnitsi]. Sofia: Avalon, 2016, 453 pp. ISBN 978-954-9704-36-5

Aneta Dimitrova. Zlatostruy in the translation activity of Old Bulgarian bookmen [Aneta Dimitrova. Zlatostrujat v prevodačeskata dejnost na starobălgarskite knižovnitsi]. Sofia: Avalon, 2016, 453 pp. ISBN 978-954-9704-36-5


Dan Zamfirescu. Marile Minee de lectură de la Tărnovo ale Patriarhului Eftimie. Ediţie facsimilată de pe manuscrisele de la Dragomirna şi Putna. Vol. 1. Bucureşti: Rosa Vânturilor, 2015, 858 pp. ISBN 978-973-1735-38-2

Dan Zamfirescu. Turnovo menologia of Patriarch Euthymius. Implicated edition of the Dragomirna and Putna manuscripts. Vol. 1. Bucharest: Rosa Vânturilor, 2015, 858 pp. ISBN 978-973-1735-38-2


Linguistics vs. Digital Editions: The Tromsø Old Russian and OCS Treebank

  • Summary/Abstract

    This article provides a description of the Tromsø Old Russian and OCS Treebank (TOROT), which, along with its parent treebank, the PROIEL corpus (built by members of the project Pragmatic Resources in Old Indo-European Languages), is the only existing treebank of Old Church Slavonic, Old East Slavic and Middle Russian texts. The TOROT is a part of a larger family of treebanks of ancient languages which all use the PROIEL open-source annotion web tool and annotation schemes. In this article we present principles and selected problems at several levels of analysis in the TOROT, and then briefly discuss ways that corpus linguists and edition philologists can fruitfully collaborate and complement each other.

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Recycling the Metropolitan: Building an Electronic Corpus on the Basis of the Edition of the Velikie Minei Čet’i

  • Summary/Abstract

    We describe the creation of the Velikie Minei Čet’i (VMČ) Corpus supplementing the latest volume of the printed edition of the Macarian Great Menaion Reader. Instead of an independently compiled historical corpus, the VMČ corpus is entirely based on the paper edition, thus following the principle of multiple use (‘recycling’) of textual data and the work invested in edition projects. We briefly describe the procedure of extraction from the edition text, dwell on the search interface designed to facilitate sophisticated yet intuitive queries, and give examples of issues that can be much more easily researched with this resource than with the paper edition. We conclude that such a supplementary corpus is both feasible and useful and hope that in the future, more editions will be accompanied by an electronic version.

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Copies of Filip Stanislavov’s Abagar (Rome, 1651)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article discusses the currently available information on the extant copies of Filip Stanislavov’s Abagar, printed in Rome by the Propaganda Fide in 1651. Starting from Božidar Rajkov’s 1979 edition, which lists fifteen known copies and their presumed location, the article offers information on several copies that are not reported by Rajkov. These include copies in London, Paris, and Uppsala, the latter in the form of a scroll. In addition, the current location of most of the earlier known copies has been verified, and new information on a number of copies is presented: for example, the copy formerly located in Brussels is currently preserved at the Bibliothèque Diderot in Lyon, whereas the two German copies seem to have been lost.

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Writing Old Cyrillic and Glagolitic in GNU/Linux with the Bulgarian Phonetic Traditional Keyboard Layout


Re-Reading the Vita Constantini: the Philosopher in Constantinople


Scholia from Gregory of Nyssa’s Apologia in Hexaemeron in the Fourteenth-Century Slavonic Hexaemeron Collection


The Kievan Manuscript of Synopsis Basilicorum major


The Neapolitan Wall Calendar From a Medieval Slavic Perspective


The Fourteenth-Century Slavonic Version of the Longer and Shorter Rules of Saint Basil: Text of the Questions and Remarks

  • Summary/Abstract

    In this paper the text of the questions in the Longer Rules (Ὅροι κατὰ πλάτος, Regulae fusius tractatae, PG 31, 901–1052) and the text Shorter Rules (Ὅρoι κατ᾿ ἐπιτομήν, Regulae brevius tractatae, PG 31, 1052–1305, CPG II 2875 Asceticon magnum sive quaestiones) of St. Basil in their medieval Slavonic version are presented according to Zografou 3, a manuscript, dating from the 14th century. Some observations are made about the text of the questions on the basis of comparison on orthographical and lexical level between Zografou 3 and three other manuscripts: British Library Additional MS 27442, National Library in Sofia 1045 (Slepčenskij sbornik) and Zografou 126, dating from the same period. The quotations from the Scripture in the text of the questions are an object of special interest. The results of the comparative analysis give a good reason to suppose that Zografou 3 preserves the oldest text in comparison to the other three witnesses.

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Motifs of Bulgarian History in Chronologia Magna and Satyrica Historia by Paulinus of Venice

  • Summary/Abstract

    This paper contains the first publication of printed excerpts related to Bulgarian history from two historical compilations by Paulinus of Venice. Chronologia Magna sive Compendium is presented according to lat. 4939, National library, Paris (14th c.) and Satyrica historia – according to Ms 445, Jagiellonian library, Cracow (15th c.). As the study and analysis of these manuscripts demonstrate, the compendia contain many accounts related to Bulgarian history – from the formation of the Bulgarian state in 681 up to the dynastic marriage of the Latin emperor of Constantinople Henry in 1213. All of the motifs from Bulgarian history, which Paulinus selected and included, are significant and fully aligned with the aims, which he had set himself in the prologue to Satyrica historia. These motifs are not merely a compilation of successes and failures, but are to form a body of well researched information, which will serve to edify posterity, based on the historical experience of the Roman and other kingdoms. Interpreting the evidence in Paulinus’ accounts in light of his stated approach, it appears that after their appearance on the European stage (681) the Bulgarians played the role of the defenders of Christian Europe (717) and the armament of God (811 г., 1205 г.). Their joining the Christian family of the European people is also recounted (865) through the example of the determination and beatitude of the Bulgarian ruler who defended the new faith even against his own son. Additionally, the Bulgarians are described as participants in events related to Byzantine history (705), as well as being adversely affected by the expansion of the unconverted Hungarians (907, 970, 1003). The accounts related by Paulinus are re-workings of earlier sources he was apparently well acquainted with. It can be argued that the present publication identified those sources with significant accuracy. The mistakes in the dating that occur in Paulinus’ compilations are often attributable to him connecting events to significant historical episodes or historical personalities, around which he builds a whole chapter or rubric of the narration. Sometimes the anachronisms are due to the sources he used. The study of the context, in which motifs related to Bulgarian history are placed allowed me to identify the sources of the material and the method of compilation employed by Paulinus of Venice. Last but not least, the analysis of the content of the motifs allowed me to establish that Dandolo mainly used information from Historia satyrica, but perhaps also consulted with Chronologia magna. He included in his chronicle almost all the motifs from the works of Paulinus, with the exception of the chronological note on the death of Nicephorus I Genik and the episode on Walter Senzavohir. Thus, the publication of the fragments from Historia satyrica and Chronologia magna clarified the origin of those passages in the chronicle of Andrea Dandolo about which D. Angelov wrote that they are connected to earlier historiographical sources but their origins are in need of further investigation.

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Text and Context: Story about the Handsome Joseph in the Miscellanies with Mixed Content

  • Summary/Abstract

    The present article provides an analysis of transmission of apocryphal Story about the Handsome Joseph and a critical edition of the text (unpublished MS No. 1161 CHAI–Sofia) with readings from Tikveš copy (MS 677 NBKM Sofia) and Prague copy (No. ІХ.H.16 National Museum, Prague). The “dialogue” between a separate text (article) and its environment in miscellany manuscripts is presented, which is very important for the method of compilation and re-editing. The alterations in the separate text correspond with alterations in the macrostructure of the miscellany. The coexistence and interweaving of texts is indicated as an important process, particularly for the chronology of

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Semantics of the Book’s Macro-Compositional Level? A Visualisation Method of Analysis

  • Summary/Abstract

    The publication opens for discussion an approach to macrostructural analysis of certain calendar miscellanies with selected readings which belong to the Medieval Balkan tradition. The author proposes that the selection of feasts and saints’ commemorations, as well as the order of the corresponding texts might be interpreted as determined by certain overall theme(s) / thematic fields and could be „read“ on the level of the book’s content. This approach was encouraged by the outcomes of a study on the calendar-thematic composition of Damaskenos Studites’s Thesauros and its transformations in Bulgarian literary tradition in the 16th-18th century. Aiming at a search for similar preceding models, the survey makes comparison on macro-compositional level between some panegyrica, such as Mihanović Homiliar and Jagić Zlatoust of the late 13th – early 14th century, the 1358/59 Miscellany of German, and the 16th-century Panegyricon No. 85 from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. In addition, the study explores the relevancy of a method for visualisation, which can be supportive of a thematic analysis.

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A Short Note on the Glagolitic Ornament in Pamvo Berynda’s Triod Cvetnaya (Kiev 1631)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article draws attention to two lesser known lines written in Glagolitic which are part of the Epilogue to Pamvo Berynda’s Triod Cvetnaja, printed in Kiev in 1631. Thanks to their typographic realisation, these two lines seem to have been mainly considered „an ornament“ or a „cryptographic“ element of the text in older literature. The article presents the Glagolitic text in standard Unicode encoding, so it becomes electronically searchable as such, along with a transliteration and a translation. It turns out that the Glagolitic text is nearly identical to the self-descriptions famout printer Pamvo Berynda had used before (although in Cyrillic). Another question put forth in the paper is the provenience of the actual printing types used in Kiev in 1631. A comparision shows that the letters look similar – but not identical – to printing type used around the same time Italy (Rome, Venice) or by Primož Trubar in the century before. The typographic quality of the Kievan types is, however, inferior.

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Употребление причастий в Енинском апостоле

Use of Participles in the Eninski Apostol


Divine Chrysostom Liturgy from Manuscript D. Gr. 143 (AD 1368) in the Ivan Dujčev Centre for Slavo-Byzantine Studies


Hellenophilism in Georgian Literature as Cultural Orientation towards Byzantine Thought: Ephrem Mtsire‘s Cultural Orientation. Part I

  • Summary/Abstract

    This paper is part of a more extensive study on the medieval Georgian writer and translator Ephrem Mtsire who continued the traditions with his works that gradually acquired clearly Hellenophile character, thus beginning the formation of Hellenophilism as a trend in Georgian literature. Hellenophilism is not considered in this paper only in its narrower linguo-literary aspect which meant attaining the formal equivalence to the original. Hellenophilism is regarded here in its wider sense of special interest of non-Greek scholars towards the thinking processes of Byzantine culture of different periods. The study of both aspects reveals the positive influence of Hellenophilism on Georgian literature. Hellenophilism as cultural orientation begins with Ephrem Mtsire‘s literary activities.

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Illuminated Manuscripts from the Family of the Hippiatrika Codex (Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Phillipps 1538)

  • Summary/Abstract

    Two manuscripts discussed in this paper – the Homilies of Gregory the Theologian GIM Syn. gr. 63 (Vlad. 144) and the Four Gospels ÖNB Theol. gr. 240 – were examined for a special study, the results of which were published in 2009 and 2013. They both are unique examples of tenth-century Byzantine book illustration, remarkable for their unusual ornamental style. The study revealed the decoration, datable to the 940s, as a work of one and the same artist, conditionally referred to as the ‘Master of the Arabesque Style’. His ornamental style is unique in the history of the Byzantine manuscript book, only existing for a short period and evidently corresponding to the activity of this one illuminator. The manuscript Berlin, Phillipps 1538, which contains a Treatise on Horse Medicine, has appeared in many publications. However, its artistic decoration has not yet received the elucidation it merits. After a new research using colour reproductions it transpired that many of the Berlin codex folios were actually decorated by the same artist as the Vienna and Synodal manuscripts. The assumption that one artist devised the three manuscripts under scrutiny brings to the conclusion that the Vienna Gospels should be classed among manuscripts from the Imperial scriptorium and dated to the period from 945 to 959. With regard to the development of minuscule script, the scribe responsible for the Hippiatrika obviously was regarded as a distinguished calligrapher, whose earliest activities should be sought in the first quarter of the century. The archaic characteristics found in the codex are in accordance with the illumination. Therefore the Berlin manuscript should be used as a reference for the attribution of manuscripts from the second half of the tenth century.

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