Language and Literature Studies

New Developments in Tagging Pre-modern Orthodox Slavic Texts

  • Summary/Abstract

    Pre-modern Orthodox Slavic texts pose certain difficulties when it comes to part-of-speech and full morphological tagging. Orthographic and morphological heterogeneity makes it hard to apply resources that rely on normalized data, which is why previous attempts to train part-of-speech (POS) taggers for pre-modern Slavic often apply normalization routines. In the current paper, we further explore the normalization path; at the same time, we use the statistical CRF-tagger MarMoT and a newly developed neural network tagger that cope better with variation than previously applied rule-based or statistical taggers. Furthermore, we conduct transfer experiments to apply Modern Russian resources to pre-modern data. Our experiments show that while transfer experiments could not improve tagging performance significantly, state-of-the-art taggers reach between 90% and more than 95% tagging accuracy and thus approach the tagging accuracy of modern standard languages with rich morphology. Remarkably, these results are achieved without the need for normalization, which makes our research of practical relevance to the Paleoslavistic community.


Electronic Edition and Linguistic Annotation of Slavic Fragments


Терминология в палеославистике и создание сети между существующими цифровыми корпусами

Terminology in Palaeoslavistics and Set up Networking between Existing Digital Corpora


Text or Paratext? The Synopsis Apostolorum of Dorotheus of Tyre

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article discusses the Synopsis Apostolorum attributed to Dorotheus of Tyre, which purports to be a list of the Seventy Apostles. It gives a brief overview of the history of the text in Greek and Slavonic. In contrast to the Greek tradition, where it may be found in miscellanies of various types and also in manuscripts of the Apostolos which are provided with relatively extensive apparatus, in Slavonic it is found exclusively in Apostolos manuscripts. The redaction of the Synopsis, moreover, corresponds to the redaction of the Apostolos; there are discernible differences between the texts in each of the three Slavonic redactions in which it is represented. This indicates that it was translated as part of the accompanying text each time that the Apostolos itself was translated. This means that the Slavonic version (unlike the Greek) exists exclusively as paratext, but that this paratextual status, being dependent on the version, is not intrinsic to the work but a function of its history. This in turn points to the necessity of taking the paratext into account in any study of the text of the Bible.


Translating the Subtleties. The Philosophical Categories in the Symeon Collection (Symeon’s Miscellany

  • Summary/Abstract

    When we study translations from classical or Byzantine Greek into Old Bulgarian, we usually encounter two aspects of the question how: firstly, the how of the linguistic rendering, the how of the translation techniques used for one term or another. The second aspect is that of evaluating the how: shall we praise or, on the contrary, express regrets in respect of the translator’s work. Besides these two inherent aspects of the question how, a third one has arisen in the last three decades in Bulgaria. We have a long tradition of translating Old Greek and Byzantine texts into Old Bulgarian, but with respect to the philosophical and theological terminology used nowadays, are we obliged to follow the patterns of the past, the forms of the language, suggested by this millennium long tradition? With respect to the formation of the Bulgarian philosophical and theological language, the Symeon’s Miscellany is an extremely important source because from f. 222 to f. 237 a range of issues is discussed as answers to questions 29 and 30. This section of the writing includes clarification of terms, categories and concepts from the classical Greek and/or the Christian philosophy and demands profound interdisciplinary research.


Указатели названий и инципитов разделов и глав славянских списков Откровения Иоанна Богослова как поисковый аппарат и основа для изучения редакций текста 

Indexes of Names and Incipita of Sections and Chapters of the Slavonic Witnesses of the Revelation of John the Theologian as a Search Tool and a Basis for Studying Versions of the Text


Иерархическая модель гимнографической терминологии: дигитальное приложение

A Hierarchical Model of the Hymnographic Terminology: Digital Application


Название и самоназвание в номинативных комплексах рукописных книг XIV–XIX веков (на материале Отдела рукописей Российской государственной библиотеки)

Title and Self-title in Nominative Complexes of Manuscripts 14th–19th Centuries (Based on the Material of the Manuscript Department of the Russian State Library)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article defines the concepts related to the naming of written monuments in the Slavonic-Russian manuscript tradition. The definitions of basic concepts: name, self, complex nominative, nominative unit. Identified the causes, the appearance of names in different parts of the same manuscript books associated with the execution name and the self of different functions: nominative, informative, hermeneutics, didactic, testoobraznaja, aesthetic. A comparison of the concepts of title and self-title on the example of handwritten books stored in the manuscript Department of the Russian state library, the Fund of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. It is revealed that the self-name is more extensive and informative than the name, but the name, in turn, differs in structural and semantic variability. Variability of names in the composition of nominative complexes is characterized.


Проложные жития в средневековой южнославянской книжности

The Prologue Vitae in the Medieval South-Slavonic Literature


Textological Notes on De Christo et Antichristo by Hippolytus of Rome in the Greek and Slavonic Manuscript Tradition

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article has two main focuses – first, it follows the most significant and important Antichrist myth researches, and secondly, the Greek tradition of De Christo et Antichristo by Hippolytus of Rome and the Slavonic versions of the text. The Slavonic witnesses are examined according to their omissions, additions, grammatical and morphological variations, and also some of the changes in the Bible quotations are highlighted. This work does not pretend to present new information on the Greek sources but to demonstrate how important the Slavonic translation is to the interpretation of the Greek original. The most interesting results are pointed out in the relation with the Greek text itself, where the proximity between the Greek fragment of Meteora Monastery 573 and the Slavonic tradition is presented.


Апокрифический цикл об Аврааме в славянских сборниках смешанного содержания и в поэме Георгиоса Хумноса. (К вопросу о рецепции Исторической Палеи)

The Apocryphal Abraham’s Cycle in the Slavic Miscellanies and in the Poem of Georgios Choumnos (A Contribution to the Reception of the Palaea Historica)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The Historical Palaea was composed in Greek (approximately in the 9th century) and found a broad reception in the Slavic world. The text was not only translated more than one time into Slavonic but also reworked in such texts as the apocryphal cycle of Abraham contained in many Southern Slavonic miscellanies. The reception in the Byzantine realm was probably more limited but there is at least one important exception: a poem written in the 2nd half of the 15th century by a Cretan Georgios Chumnos. A comparison between the cycle of Abraham and the relevant part of this poem (verses 579 to 1348) shows that there are many agreements between the cycle of Abraham and Chumnos against the text of the Historical Palaea as their common Vorlage (story of Melchizedek told through direct speech; omission of circumcision of Isaac and death of Sarah; inclusion of death of Abraham omitted in the Palaea; omission of several allusions to the New Testament and many other affinities). The article deals with the question about possible explanations of some of these – partly astonishing – similarities between the texts of two different traditions.


Daily Life and Religion: The Vienna Euchologia Project

  • Summary/Abstract

    The study of the Euchologia (singular: Euchologion), the prayer books to be used by the clergy, has long been neglected by medieval historians. This is beginning to change, as more and more scholars discover the potential of the Euchologia as a source for social history. Indeed, Euchologia contain besides Eucharistic and sacramental liturgies also prayers for various occasions of the daily life of women, men and children from various strata of society and every geographical region of the Byzantine world. Thus, the Euchologia offer a different perspective than most Byzantine written sources, which concentrate on urban, male, often ordained elites. In 2015 a new research project dedicated to the study of Euchologia was initiated at the Division of Byzantine Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. The project seeks to study Greek-language Euchologia copied up to the year 1650 and the prayers they contain.


Vis et sapientia: Studia in honorem Anisavae Miltenova. Нови извори, интерпретации и подходи в медиевистиката

Vis et sapientia: Studia in honorem Anisavae Miltenova. New sources, interpretations, and approaches in medieval studies


Елка Мирчева. Староизводните и новоизводните сборници – преводи, редакции, преработки, книжовноезикови особености

Elka Mircheva. Old Redaction Menologia (Structured According to Studion Typikon) and New Redaction Menologia (Structured According to Jerusalem Typikon) – Translations, Redactions, Transformations, Linguistic Peculiarities

  • Summary/Abstract

    Elka Mircheva. Old Redaction Menologia (Structured According to Studion Typikon) and New Redaction Menologia (Structured According to Jerusalem Typikon) – Translations, Redactions, Transformations, Linguistic Peculiarities


Medieval Bulgarian Art and Letters in a Byzantine Context. Edited by Elka Bakalova, Margaret Dimitrova, and M. A. Johnson. Sofia: American Research Center in Sofia, 2017, 573 pp.; ISBN 978-954-92571-0-6

  • Summary/Abstract
    Medieval Bulgarian Art and Letters in a Byzantine Context. Edited by Elka Bakalova, Margaret Dimitrova, and M. A. Johnson. Sofia: American Research Center in Sofia, 2017, 573 pp.; ISBN 978-954-92571-0-6

Иван И. Илиев. Тълкуванието на Книга на пророк Даниил от Иполит Римски в старобългарски превод. София: Институт за литература при БАН, 2017, 425 с. ISBN 978-954-509-580-1

Ivan Iliev. The Commentary on the Book of Daniel by Hippolytus of Rome in the Old Church Slavonic Translation. Sofia: Institute of Literature, BAS, 2017, 425 pp., ISBN 978-954-509-580-1

  • Summary/Abstract

    Ivan Iliev. The Commentary on the Book of Daniel by Hippolytus of Rome in the Old Church Slavonic Translation. Sofia: Institute of Literature, BAS, 2017, 425 pp., ISBN 978-954-509-580-1


The Earliest Slavonic Translation of the Song of Songs from Greek: A Possible Influence from the Vulgate?


Byzantines, Bulgarians and Serbs in the Vita of Saint Vladimir in the Gesta Regum Sclavorum


The Isaiah Code: Highlights in the History of a Catena in Slavic Tradition

  • Summary/Abstract

    This study seeks to trace out the structure of the Book of Prophet Isaiah with commentaries and to explore what that structure reveals about the text in some manuscripts of the East Slavonic and South Slavonic traditions. There are three conclusions made as a result of the present study. Firstly, the analysis of the structure and the identification of the readings in Catena Slavonica in Isaiam shows a translation of a catena which occupies an intermediate position between the Catena in Isaiam by John Drungarios and the one by Andrew the Presbyter whichever is the earliest. The CSI resembles both. Secondly, the value of the CSI should not be underestimated, because it includes a translation of scholia by Theodulus whose work is now almost entirely lost. Therefore the CSI could provide new evidence for the content of the lost Byzantine original of Theodulus’ Commentary on Isaiah. Thirdly, the comparison of the numerals in the margin of РНБ F.I.461 with the sequence and number of the biblical pericopes and relevant scholia in the Russian manuscripts clearly and unequivocally demonstrates that although F.I. 461 is the earliest evidence of Preslav translation in a Tărnovo redaction, it is still a single link in the chain of the Slavonic tradition and has a many shortcomings compared to the CSI in the Russian tradition.


The Parable of the Unicorn in the Story of Barlaam and Josaphat


Двойная рецепция при формировании княжеской службы: служба св. Александру Невскому как модель

A Double Reception in the Formation of a Princely Service: The Service of St Alexander Nevsky as a Model

  • Summary/Abstract

    The Service of St Alexander Nevsky was written by Monk Michael of the Roždestvenskij monastyr’ (Nativity monastery) in Vladimir. He was one of the writers, belonging with the circle of Metropolitan Macarius, who composed princely services (and sometimes vitas) for new Russian saints. Most of the services are compilations of verses and hymns and more or less exact borrowings (and sometimes compositions according to models). In the Service of St Alexander Nevsky, the most refined of Monk Michael’s works, the hymnographer utilized various models to combine them into one canon, thus giving it the colour of an original work. It is important to add that Monk Michael used Slavic translations instead of original Greek texts, a fact proved by textological comparison. The service, dedicated to a saint prince, canonized in the sixteenth century, was the only one included in the Menaion. Together with the especial respect and veneration of the new saint, it was one of the reasons why his service became a model of other princely services. It is worth noting that instead of hymns, originally borrowed for the new service, exactly the adapted hymns to St Alexander were taken as standard for princely services, thus allowing a double reception of the translated hymns. For the purpose of the investigation the author analyzes the services of St Roman of Ugleč, St Daniel of Moscow, the Service of Finding of his Relics including, as well as the service to St Dowmant of Pskov.


Chronological Layers in Translated Texts: Observations on a Sticheron of Archangel Michael


Неизвестный пергаментный отрывок кириллического Евангелия апракос полного из библиотеки Духовной семинарии Госианум в Ольштыне

An Unknown Parchment Fragment of the Cyrillic Gospel (Full Lectionary) from the Seminary’s Library in Olsztyn

  • Summary/Abstract

    The author introduces a new (previously unknown) parchment fragment (one leaf) of the Full Gospel lectionary from the Library of the Hosianum Seminary of the Archdiocese of Warmia in Olsztyn (Poland). The article presents a concise description and a general characteristic (with textological analysis) of the fragment along with its publication (with three photos). Cyrillic fragment of the Gospel manuscript, which was used together with Latin one to bind several early printed Latin books, is dated to the end of fourteenth or beginning of fifteenth century, but not later than the year 1420. The article presents also a short history of the Library of the Hosianum Seminary as far as it concerns the history of the Cyrillic Gospel fragment.


Двуязычные индексы в палеославистичной лексикографической традиции как инструмент изучения истории перевода в Slavia Orthodoxa

The Bilingual Indexes in the Paleoslavistic Lexicographical Tradition as a Tool of Studying the History of Translation in Slavia Orthodoxa


К вопросу о переводе агиографического синаксаря (простого пролога) в свете новейших исследований

Towards the Question: When and Where the Simple Prologue Was Translated in the Light of the New Studies

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article examines the current hypotheses about time and place of translation of so-called Simple Prologue (hagiographic Synaxarium) in the Slavonic environment. Special attention is paid to the latest studies in the field. As additional arguments to answer the question are given the data on Russian and South Slavonic (mostly Bulgarian) commemorations in the early version of the Prologue. These data allowed to reject the existing hypotheses and to support the conclusion that the Simple Prologue was translated in the time of Samuil of Bulgaria in Archbishopric of Ohrid at the end of tenth – beginning of eleventh century. The translation was made very soon after the occurrence of Synaxarium in Byzantium and was due to the liturgical necessity.


Reconsidering the Textual Transmission of the Slavonic Quaestiones adAntiochum ducem

  • Summary/Abstract

    The present contribution addresses questions concerning the textual history of the Slavonic translation of the Quaestiones ad Antiochum ducem (CPG 2257) and challenges some of the positions taken by William Veder in his recent edition (2016) of this eratopocritic collection. A selection of key text witnesses (among which the Izbornik of 1076, the Troitskij sbornik and the Laurentian florilegium of 1348) are examined in order to distinguish the different textual layers and to arrive at a better understanding of the text’s transmission history. It is argued that there is no firm proof for the existence of a full corpus of QAD questions in Slavonic prior to the thirteenth century and that the textual tradition of the QAD is marked by progressive expansion and continuous conflation.


The Greek Tradition of Hippolytus’ Commentarii in Danielem and the Slavonic Translation

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article highlights the Greek manuscripts, containing Hippolytus of Rome’s Commentarii in Danielem, the history of their research and their content, as well as the relation among them and the Slavonic translation. The author reveals all Greek and Slavonic sources, known today, and demonstrates how the two versions of the text correspond to each other. The main focus is placed on the cod. Meteoron 573, of the tenth century, proven to be the closest and mostly related to the Slavonic translation. This matter was profoundly revealed by comparison of contents, titles and structure of the texts of both versions, which is briefly presented in this paper.


Multiple Translations and Their Context. Praxis de stratilatis in the Medieval South Slavic Tradition

  • Summary/Abstract

    My paper focuses on the earliest account of St Nicholas of Myra (Praxis de stratilatis) and its adaption in the South Slavic literary tradition. Praxis de stratilatis dates back to the fourth century and it was the only narrative of the saint for more than three centuries. Even after the eight century when the local cult grew and other narratives about the saint appeared Praxis de statilatis remained one of the most authoritative texts in the literature and the art. The text was translated not only once but twice at the dawn of Old Bulgarian literature, probably as early as the tenth century. The appearance of more than one translation is considered as a witness of the specificity of the literature translated from Greek in the Old Bulgarian tradition, on the one hand, and of the needs and attitude of the readership, on the other. Main hypothesis of my paper is that different kinds of manuscripts provoked the double translations of the text. These are, on the one hand, the Panegyricomartyrologia (known as Minejno­Triodni panegyritsi in the Slavic tradition), which are calendar miscellanies consisting of narratives and eulogies for both cycles of feasts – the movable and the immovable, and, on the other hand, the Menologia (known as Čet’i­Minei), consisting of texts only for the immovable feasts. The textual and contextual analysis of the preserved witnesses of both translations of Praxis de stratilatis shows the cultural and literary needs of the readership which turned out to be important for copying and disseminating the translated text.


A Byzantine Epigram in the Pictorial Cycle of Akathistos Hymn for the Virgin from the Narthex of Kremikovtsi Monastery St George (1493)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The research paper presents an unpublished inscription in Greek language from the narthex of the Kremikovtsi Monastery St George near Sofia – an epigram of the famous Byzantine poet Theodoros Prodromos, who lived at the court of the Komnenian Dynasty in the twelfth century. Being part of the scene Flight into Egypt and – more precisely, – being written in the scroll of a female figure – a personification of the city, no parallel of this inscription has been attested so far in post-Byzantine art. The only other scroll like this has been discovered in the church of the Seslavtsi Monastery St Nicholas near Sofia, but the text there is probably just a decorative detail. A complete study of the preserved part of the damaged inscription is conducted, together with a discussion about its linguistic and literary specifics in the context of the high Byzantine poetry and the Biblical exegesis. The aim is to outline and to describe the raison d’être of this religious epigram (ἱερὸν ἐπίγραμμα) as an expressive instrument for direct communication with the audience through its main stylistic feature – the dialogue between the Saviour and the layman, between the divine and the human nature of Christ. The poetical form chosen by Theodoros Prodromos immediately draws the viewers’ attention and it compels them to reflect upon the scene. Theodoros Prodromos’ epigram in the Kremikovtsi Monastery offers an exceptional and significant proof that the connection of Balkan art to the achievements of the Christian culture of the former Byzantine empire was still alive in the fifteenth century.


Elena N. Boeck. Imaging the Byzantine Past: The Perception of History in the Illustrated Manuscripts of Skylitzes and Manasses. Cambridge University Press, 2015, 314 pp., ill. ISBN 978-1-107-08581-7

Elena N. Boeck. Imaging the Byzantine Past: The Perception of History in the Illustrated Manuscripts of Skylitzes and Manasses. Cambridge University Press, 2015, 314 pp., ill. ISBN 978-1-107-08581-7


Julian Petkov. Altslavische Eschatologie. Texte und Studien zur apokalyptischen Literatur in kirchenslavischer Überlieferung (Texte und Arbeiten zum neutestamentlichen Zeitalter, Bd. 59). Tübingen: Francke, 2016, 495 Seiten. ISBN-10: 3772085318

(Julian Petkov. Altslavic eschatology. Texts and Studies on Apocalyptic Literature in the Church of the Slavonic Tradition (Texts and Works on the New Testament Age, vol. 59). Tübingen: Francke, 2016, 495 pages. ISBN-10: 3772085318


Маргарет Димитрова. Средновековни молитви за родилки. Критическо издание [Margaret Dimitrova. Srednovekovni molitvi za rodilki. Kritičesko izdanie]. Sofia: Heron Press, 2014, 229 pp. ISBN 9789545803451

Margaret Dimitrova. Medieval prayers for new mothers. Critical Edition [Margaret Dimitrova. Srednovekovni molitvi za rodilki. Kritičesko izdanie]. Sofia: Heron Press, 2014, 229 pp. ISBN 9789545803451


Мария С. Мушинская. Изборник 1076 года: текстология и язык [Marija S. Mušinskaja. Izbornik 1076 goda: tekstologija i jazyk]. Sankt-Petersburg: Nestor-Istorija, 2015, 480 pp. ISBN 978-5-4469-0825-7

Maria S. Mushinskaya. The 1076 Miscellany: textology and language [Marija S. Mušinskaja. Izbornik 1076 goda: tekstologija i jazyk]. Sankt-Petersburg: Nestor-Istorija, 2015, 480 pp. ISBN 978-5-4469-0825-7


По пути славянской печатной книги на Балканах и в Юго-Восточной Европе

Along the way of the Slavic printed book in the Balkans and South-Eastern Europe

  • Summary/Abstract

    Ivan Petrov. Od inkunabułów do pierwszych gramatyk. Konteksty rozwoju bułgarskiego języka literackiego koniec XV – początek XVII wieka. Łódź: Wydawnictwo uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2015, 268 pp. ISBN 978-83-7969-792-2


Анета Димитрова. Златоструят в преводаческата дейност на старобългарските книжовници [Aneta Dimitrova. Zlatostrujat v prevodačeskata dejnost na starobălgarskite knižovnitsi]. Sofia: Avalon, 2016, 453 pp. ISBN 978-954-9704-36-5

Aneta Dimitrova. Zlatostruy in the translation activity of Old Bulgarian bookmen [Aneta Dimitrova. Zlatostrujat v prevodačeskata dejnost na starobălgarskite knižovnitsi]. Sofia: Avalon, 2016, 453 pp. ISBN 978-954-9704-36-5


Dan Zamfirescu. Marile Minee de lectură de la Tărnovo ale Patriarhului Eftimie. Ediţie facsimilată de pe manuscrisele de la Dragomirna şi Putna. Vol. 1. Bucureşti: Rosa Vânturilor, 2015, 858 pp. ISBN 978-973-1735-38-2

Dan Zamfirescu. Turnovo menologia of Patriarch Euthymius. Implicated edition of the Dragomirna and Putna manuscripts. Vol. 1. Bucharest: Rosa Vânturilor, 2015, 858 pp. ISBN 978-973-1735-38-2


Linguistics vs. Digital Editions: The Tromsø Old Russian and OCS Treebank

  • Summary/Abstract

    This article provides a description of the Tromsø Old Russian and OCS Treebank (TOROT), which, along with its parent treebank, the PROIEL corpus (built by members of the project Pragmatic Resources in Old Indo-European Languages), is the only existing treebank of Old Church Slavonic, Old East Slavic and Middle Russian texts. The TOROT is a part of a larger family of treebanks of ancient languages which all use the PROIEL open-source annotion web tool and annotation schemes. In this article we present principles and selected problems at several levels of analysis in the TOROT, and then briefly discuss ways that corpus linguists and edition philologists can fruitfully collaborate and complement each other.


Recycling the Metropolitan: Building an Electronic Corpus on the Basis of the Edition of the Velikie Minei Čet’i

  • Summary/Abstract

    We describe the creation of the Velikie Minei Čet’i (VMČ) Corpus supplementing the latest volume of the printed edition of the Macarian Great Menaion Reader. Instead of an independently compiled historical corpus, the VMČ corpus is entirely based on the paper edition, thus following the principle of multiple use (‘recycling’) of textual data and the work invested in edition projects. We briefly describe the procedure of extraction from the edition text, dwell on the search interface designed to facilitate sophisticated yet intuitive queries, and give examples of issues that can be much more easily researched with this resource than with the paper edition. We conclude that such a supplementary corpus is both feasible and useful and hope that in the future, more editions will be accompanied by an electronic version.


Copies of Filip Stanislavov’s Abagar (Rome, 1651)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article discusses the currently available information on the extant copies of Filip Stanislavov’s Abagar, printed in Rome by the Propaganda Fide in 1651. Starting from Božidar Rajkov’s 1979 edition, which lists fifteen known copies and their presumed location, the article offers information on several copies that are not reported by Rajkov. These include copies in London, Paris, and Uppsala, the latter in the form of a scroll. In addition, the current location of most of the earlier known copies has been verified, and new information on a number of copies is presented: for example, the copy formerly located in Brussels is currently preserved at the Bibliothèque Diderot in Lyon, whereas the two German copies seem to have been lost.


Writing Old Cyrillic and Glagolitic in GNU/Linux with the Bulgarian Phonetic Traditional Keyboard Layout


Re-Reading the Vita Constantini: the Philosopher in Constantinople


Scholia from Gregory of Nyssa’s Apologia in Hexaemeron in the Fourteenth-Century Slavonic Hexaemeron Collection


The Kievan Manuscript of Synopsis Basilicorum major


The Neapolitan Wall Calendar From a Medieval Slavic Perspective


The Fourteenth-Century Slavonic Version of the Longer and Shorter Rules of Saint Basil: Text of the Questions and Remarks

  • Summary/Abstract

    In this paper the text of the questions in the Longer Rules (Ὅροι κατὰ πλάτος, Regulae fusius tractatae, PG 31, 901–1052) and the text Shorter Rules (Ὅρoι κατ᾿ ἐπιτομήν, Regulae brevius tractatae, PG 31, 1052–1305, CPG II 2875 Asceticon magnum sive quaestiones) of St. Basil in their medieval Slavonic version are presented according to Zografou 3, a manuscript, dating from the 14th century. Some observations are made about the text of the questions on the basis of comparison on orthographical and lexical level between Zografou 3 and three other manuscripts: British Library Additional MS 27442, National Library in Sofia 1045 (Slepčenskij sbornik) and Zografou 126, dating from the same period. The quotations from the Scripture in the text of the questions are an object of special interest. The results of the comparative analysis give a good reason to suppose that Zografou 3 preserves the oldest text in comparison to the other three witnesses.


Motifs of Bulgarian History in Chronologia Magna and Satyrica Historia by Paulinus of Venice

  • Summary/Abstract

    This paper contains the first publication of printed excerpts related to Bulgarian history from two historical compilations by Paulinus of Venice. Chronologia Magna sive Compendium is presented according to lat. 4939, National library, Paris (14th c.) and Satyrica historia – according to Ms 445, Jagiellonian library, Cracow (15th c.). As the study and analysis of these manuscripts demonstrate, the compendia contain many accounts related to Bulgarian history – from the formation of the Bulgarian state in 681 up to the dynastic marriage of the Latin emperor of Constantinople Henry in 1213. All of the motifs from Bulgarian history, which Paulinus selected and included, are significant and fully aligned with the aims, which he had set himself in the prologue to Satyrica historia. These motifs are not merely a compilation of successes and failures, but are to form a body of well researched information, which will serve to edify posterity, based on the historical experience of the Roman and other kingdoms. Interpreting the evidence in Paulinus’ accounts in light of his stated approach, it appears that after their appearance on the European stage (681) the Bulgarians played the role of the defenders of Christian Europe (717) and the armament of God (811 г., 1205 г.). Their joining the Christian family of the European people is also recounted (865) through the example of the determination and beatitude of the Bulgarian ruler who defended the new faith even against his own son. Additionally, the Bulgarians are described as participants in events related to Byzantine history (705), as well as being adversely affected by the expansion of the unconverted Hungarians (907, 970, 1003). The accounts related by Paulinus are re-workings of earlier sources he was apparently well acquainted with. It can be argued that the present publication identified those sources with significant accuracy. The mistakes in the dating that occur in Paulinus’ compilations are often attributable to him connecting events to significant historical episodes or historical personalities, around which he builds a whole chapter or rubric of the narration. Sometimes the anachronisms are due to the sources he used. The study of the context, in which motifs related to Bulgarian history are placed allowed me to identify the sources of the material and the method of compilation employed by Paulinus of Venice. Last but not least, the analysis of the content of the motifs allowed me to establish that Dandolo mainly used information from Historia satyrica, but perhaps also consulted with Chronologia magna. He included in his chronicle almost all the motifs from the works of Paulinus, with the exception of the chronological note on the death of Nicephorus I Genik and the episode on Walter Senzavohir. Thus, the publication of the fragments from Historia satyrica and Chronologia magna clarified the origin of those passages in the chronicle of Andrea Dandolo about which D. Angelov wrote that they are connected to earlier historiographical sources but their origins are in need of further investigation.


Text and Context: Story about the Handsome Joseph in the Miscellanies with Mixed Content

  • Summary/Abstract

    The present article provides an analysis of transmission of apocryphal Story about the Handsome Joseph and a critical edition of the text (unpublished MS No. 1161 CHAI–Sofia) with readings from Tikveš copy (MS 677 NBKM Sofia) and Prague copy (No. ІХ.H.16 National Museum, Prague). The “dialogue” between a separate text (article) and its environment in miscellany manuscripts is presented, which is very important for the method of compilation and re-editing. The alterations in the separate text correspond with alterations in the macrostructure of the miscellany. The coexistence and interweaving of texts is indicated as an important process, particularly for the chronology of


Semantics of the Book’s Macro-Compositional Level? A Visualisation Method of Analysis

  • Summary/Abstract

    The publication opens for discussion an approach to macrostructural analysis of certain calendar miscellanies with selected readings which belong to the Medieval Balkan tradition. The author proposes that the selection of feasts and saints’ commemorations, as well as the order of the corresponding texts might be interpreted as determined by certain overall theme(s) / thematic fields and could be „read“ on the level of the book’s content. This approach was encouraged by the outcomes of a study on the calendar-thematic composition of Damaskenos Studites’s Thesauros and its transformations in Bulgarian literary tradition in the 16th-18th century. Aiming at a search for similar preceding models, the survey makes comparison on macro-compositional level between some panegyrica, such as Mihanović Homiliar and Jagić Zlatoust of the late 13th – early 14th century, the 1358/59 Miscellany of German, and the 16th-century Panegyricon No. 85 from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. In addition, the study explores the relevancy of a method for visualisation, which can be supportive of a thematic analysis.


A Short Note on the Glagolitic Ornament in Pamvo Berynda’s Triod Cvetnaya (Kiev 1631)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article draws attention to two lesser known lines written in Glagolitic which are part of the Epilogue to Pamvo Berynda’s Triod Cvetnaja, printed in Kiev in 1631. Thanks to their typographic realisation, these two lines seem to have been mainly considered „an ornament“ or a „cryptographic“ element of the text in older literature. The article presents the Glagolitic text in standard Unicode encoding, so it becomes electronically searchable as such, along with a transliteration and a translation. It turns out that the Glagolitic text is nearly identical to the self-descriptions famout printer Pamvo Berynda had used before (although in Cyrillic). Another question put forth in the paper is the provenience of the actual printing types used in Kiev in 1631. A comparision shows that the letters look similar – but not identical – to printing type used around the same time Italy (Rome, Venice) or by Primož Trubar in the century before. The typographic quality of the Kievan types is, however, inferior.


Употребление причастий в Енинском апостоле

Use of Participles in the Eninski Apostol


Divine Chrysostom Liturgy from Manuscript D. Gr. 143 (AD 1368) in the Ivan Dujčev Centre for Slavo-Byzantine Studies


Hellenophilism in Georgian Literature as Cultural Orientation towards Byzantine Thought: Ephrem Mtsire‘s Cultural Orientation. Part I

  • Summary/Abstract

    This paper is part of a more extensive study on the medieval Georgian writer and translator Ephrem Mtsire who continued the traditions with his works that gradually acquired clearly Hellenophile character, thus beginning the formation of Hellenophilism as a trend in Georgian literature. Hellenophilism is not considered in this paper only in its narrower linguo-literary aspect which meant attaining the formal equivalence to the original. Hellenophilism is regarded here in its wider sense of special interest of non-Greek scholars towards the thinking processes of Byzantine culture of different periods. The study of both aspects reveals the positive influence of Hellenophilism on Georgian literature. Hellenophilism as cultural orientation begins with Ephrem Mtsire‘s literary activities.


Illuminated Manuscripts from the Family of the Hippiatrika Codex (Berlin, Staatsbibliothek, Phillipps 1538)

  • Summary/Abstract

    Two manuscripts discussed in this paper – the Homilies of Gregory the Theologian GIM Syn. gr. 63 (Vlad. 144) and the Four Gospels ÖNB Theol. gr. 240 – were examined for a special study, the results of which were published in 2009 and 2013. They both are unique examples of tenth-century Byzantine book illustration, remarkable for their unusual ornamental style. The study revealed the decoration, datable to the 940s, as a work of one and the same artist, conditionally referred to as the ‘Master of the Arabesque Style’. His ornamental style is unique in the history of the Byzantine manuscript book, only existing for a short period and evidently corresponding to the activity of this one illuminator. The manuscript Berlin, Phillipps 1538, which contains a Treatise on Horse Medicine, has appeared in many publications. However, its artistic decoration has not yet received the elucidation it merits. After a new research using colour reproductions it transpired that many of the Berlin codex folios were actually decorated by the same artist as the Vienna and Synodal manuscripts. The assumption that one artist devised the three manuscripts under scrutiny brings to the conclusion that the Vienna Gospels should be classed among manuscripts from the Imperial scriptorium and dated to the period from 945 to 959. With regard to the development of minuscule script, the scribe responsible for the Hippiatrika obviously was regarded as a distinguished calligrapher, whose earliest activities should be sought in the first quarter of the century. The archaic characteristics found in the codex are in accordance with the illumination. Therefore the Berlin manuscript should be used as a reference for the attribution of manuscripts from the second half of the tenth century.


Jan Stradomski. Rękopisy i teksty. Studia nad cerkiewnosłowiańską kulturą literacką Wielkiego Księstwa Litewskiego i Korony Polskiej do końca XVI wieku. [Krakowsko-Wileńskie studia slawistyczne. T. 10.] Kraków 2014

Jan Stradomski. Manuscripts and texts. Church Slavonic studies of the literary culture of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Polish crown to the end of the sixteenth century. [Cracow-Vilnius Slavic studies. T. 10.] Krakow 2014


Types of Books and Types of Records: A Short Presentation of the CGS Database of Cyrillic and Glagolitic Books and Manuscripts in Sweden

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article presents some of the results of the project Digitalised Descriptions of Slavic Cyrillic Manuscripts and Early Printed Books in Swedish Libraries and Archives (2010–2013), focussing on the online database Cyrillic and Glagolitic Books and Manuscripts in Sweden (CGS), which contains descriptions of more than 600 items (manuscripts, manuscript fragments, and printed books) located in over twenty different repositories in sixteen Swedish cities. Mainly, the article discusses the description structure of the c. 400 printed books, belonging to some 300 different editions. Most of the books are printed or written in the Cyrillic script, but there are also several Glagolitic printed books. The collections also include a few biscriptal editions, as well as a number of “non-Slavic” books with certain sections printed in the Cyrillic or Glagolitic script: Leonhard Thurneysser’s Melitsah (1583), Adam Bohorič’s Arcticæ horulæ succisivæ (1584), the book presented to the Swedish king Gustav III at his visit to Rome in 1784, etc. The majority of the described books are printed in Moscow, Kiev and other Slavic cultural centers, but the database also includes books printed in areas not dominated by Cyrillic or Glagolitic printing such as, for example, Stockholm (the Lutheran Catechisms in Church Slavonic [1628] and Finnish [1644]), Rome (Filip Stanislavov’s Abagar [1651]), and Tübingen (the first Glagolitic Croatian translations of the New Testament [1562–63]). A particularly important feature of the CGS database is the possibility to provide its records with links to other online catalogues and projects: the National Union Catalogue of Sweden LIBRIS, the Worldcat catalogue, the ProBok and Repertorium projects—in addition, the database includes a substantial number of links to online available digital surrogates of the described books. Thus, the CGS database will, it is hoped, serve as a continuously growing hub for information on the collections of early Cyrillic and Glagolitic manuscripts and printed books in Sweden.


Early Cyrillic Printed Books in Swedish Libraries: Investigation and New Data

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article presents the background, the implementation and part of the results of the project Digitalized Descriptions of Slavic Cyrillic Manuscripts and Early Printed Books in Swedish Libraries and Archives (2010–2013). Earlier Swedish catalogues (Glubokovskij 1918, Kjellberg 1951, Gawryś, Jansson 1956, Gawryś 1960 and 1961, Armand 1970 and Granberg, Varpio 2009) are commented on and their contribution to the building of a national catalogue is highlighted. The article presents new data on the book exchange in 1938 between Uppsala University Library Carolina Rediviva and the Russian State Library. As a result of this exchange the collection of early Cyrillic prints in Carolina Rediviva increased by about 60 copies. The article further presents new data on editions of early printed books and their copies, with references to the entries in the database Cyrillic and Glagolitic Books and Manuscripts in Sweden (CGS), https://130.241.37.191/cgs/. The project resulted in several descriptions of editions that have not been recorded in the bibliographies, which have been studied within the project, e.g. Calendar (Moscow, 1678) and Calendar (Moscow, 1679). Other editions presented in the article have so far only been known through notes in different documents, for example Horologion (Moscow, 1734). Further, the article enlightens cases where the only preserved copy of an edition is kept in Sweden, such as Daily Prayers (Vilna, 1609) and Horologion (Univ. 1686). A list of all the editions mentioned is added at the end of the article.


Early Modern Slovenian Manuscripts. Encoding and Presenting Descriptions, Genres, and Authors

  • Summary/Abstract

    The contribution aims to outline the goals, the methodological framework and the encoding practices, used in the project Unknown Early Modern Manuscripts of Slovenian Literature. Our research of primary sources focused on those manuscripts that remained unknown or left out of research until recently. The study indicated that the majority of manuscripts remained out of the scholarly evidence mostly because of their pre-modern characteristics. This applies especially to the content of these manuscripts, originating from mystical and pseudo-mystical currents of baroque culture, which has been later rejected by rationalistic enlightenment paradigm. In literary studies, this state of art remained in force until recently. The main results of the research up to date are embodied in the on-line portal <http://ezb.ijs.si/nrss/&gt; with the Register of the manuscripts and the bibliographic resources. Each manuscript is presented by means of structured TEI-encoded description and by digital facsimile. To date, the first hundred manuscripts are published here as the beginning of a systematic long-term research – and as a venue to a more broad and more varied readers' reception of the older Slovenian, mostly unknown, literary and religious texts.


Gregory Tsamblak and Classical Antiquity

  • Summary/Abstract

    The author disusses the possible sources of the the sermon On Cheesefare Saturday. A Sermon by the Humble Monk and Presbyter Gregory Dedicated to the Reverend Fathers who shined in Lent, and more precisely she seeks sources of Gregory Tsamblak’s mentioning of ancient philosophers, authorities, stories, aphorisms, images, motifs. She finds parallels in Suidas and in the so-called Serbian Alexandria. Donka Petkanova concludes that Gregory Tsamblak borrowed mostly facts and images from the ancient sources but interpreted them in his own way demonstrating the superiority of Christian spirituality and Christian holy men.


On Bulgarian Historical Dialectology

  • Summary/Abstract

    The Bulgarian historical dialectology is still an underdeveloped part of Bulgarian language studies. The author poses some of the most important and yet unsolved problems: the changes of the front vowel ѣ, the so-called „mixture of nasals“, the changes of nasals and jers in the Rhodope Mountain dialects. She also considers results of migrassion processes.


The Cyrillomethodian Tradition in the Slavic World

  • Summary/Abstract

    Eastern Roman Empire had an important role in the spiritual and cultural development of the Slavic world, which inhabited vast areas north of its borders in the ninth century AD. Two brothers from Thessaloniki, St. Constantine-Cyril and St. Methodius, launched this active work in which cultural and religious traditions of the Christian East are clearly reflected and embodied and defined the terms of the relationship between the Slavic world and the Empire of New Rome. In the article the author tries to give a theological evaluation of the cultural and spiritual progress of the Slavic world in connection with Byzantium. He considers the activities of the Thessalonian brothers as developed in two critical axes that affect the consolidation of ecclesiastical tradition of the Christian East by spreading the Christian hagiographic tradition and the tradition of the Fathers, on the one hand, and the spread of the tradition of the laws of Constantinople, on the other. These two axes ensured the establishment of institutions, models and structures in the Slavic world that were similar to the Byzantine ones. All this not only sets guidelines for development of the Slavic cultures, but also determines the characteristics of these cultures connected to the Empire of New Rome with the inseparable and indestructible ties.


Voskresenskaja Kormchaja: The Sources and the Scribes

  • Summary/Abstract

    The paper is devoted to the sources and paleographic features of Voskresenskaja Kormchaja (Nomocanon). This is one of the oldest Russian canonical manuscripts, dated to the end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th century. The study of its texts makes obvious that Voskresenskaja Kormchaja is based on three versions of Nomocanon. Its compilers used the Old Slavonic version of Nomocanon, the Serbian and the Russian versions as well. Probably they had only a fragment of Russian version of Nomocanon. In all likelihood, four scribes contributed to the completion of Voscresenskaja Kornchaja.


The Alphabetic Chapters Attributed to St. Neilos: an Edition

  • Summary/Abstract

    This a critical editio princeps of a Byzantine ascetic work composed of twenty-four short Christian moral teachings in prose, each beginning with a letter of the Greek alphabet. The four known manuscript witnesses for the Alphabetic Chapters have been processed philologically to yield a stemma codicum and a significant number of variant readings. The complex question of authorship is discussed briefly. This article adds to the edited specimina of a minor, yet popular, genre of Byzantine theological literature – the monastic chapters.


Tracing the Greek Parallels to Acta Thomae in India as Witnessed in MS NBKM 1039

  • Summary/Abstract

    The paper discusses the possible Greek version of Acts and Martirdom of St. Apostle Thoma in India that was translated relatively early in the Slavic tradition. The author makes a new edition of the Greek text based on the critical edition by Bonnet 1903. His aim is to find the Greek text that is closer to the Slavic version.


The Quotations from the Psalter in the Pašman Rule and the Croatian Glagolitic Tradition of the Psalter

  • Summary/Abstract

    This paper analysesthe quotations from the Psalter in the Pašman Rule. The Pašman Rule is a Croatian Glagolitic manuscript from the XIV century, containing the oldest Slavonic translation of the Rule of the Benedictine order. The quotations are compared with the corresponding verses in Croatian Glagolitic manuscripts: Psaters (Psalterium Vindobonense, codex Parisiensis, codex Lobkowiczianus-Pragensis, codex Zagrabiensis, codex Pasmanensis and codex Parisiensis 73) and the edition princeps the Croatian Glagolitic Breviary from 1491. The aim is to show some of the symptomatic cases of resemblance and difference between the sources examined. The results of the analysis suggests that the quotations correspond sometimes to the most archaic Psalterium Vindobonense. More frequently they are similar to the other manuscripts and to the Editio princeps of 1491. Still, in most cases they are close to the text in codex Parisiensis 73. On the other hand, the Psalter quotations in the Pašman Rule deviate from the sources examined in several cases. This happens when there are differences between the text in the Vulgate and the Benedictine Rule. The differences are due to individual choices of the translator of the Benedictine rule, incorrect or a free translation.


The Virtues of the Ruler according to the Life of Stefan Lazarević by Constantine of Kostenets

  • Summary/Abstract

    The author discusses the image of the Serbian ruler Stefan Lazarević in his Life by Constantine of Kostenets and in particular, the role of the Old Testament allusions, citations and models. She finds out that the verbal royal iconography created by Constantine of Kostenets is supported by biblical, historical and mythological characters, referred to in a similar context also in the Manasses Chronicle and in the Alexander Romance. Elena Kotseva analyzes the image of Stefan Lazarević in the context of the trend in the 14th-15th literature to draw comparisons with Joshua, Moses, Samson and David, with Alexander the Great, Constantine the Great, Darius and Croesus. At the same time she finds parallels to the image of the Serbian ruler in the oral tradition, in epics and balladic motifs. She analyzes the image of the Serbian ruler created by Constantine of Kostenets in the context of the Balkan culture of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and of the cultural memory for the apocalypse of the war in the epoch of the death and lamentation of Prince Lazar, the death of Vladislav Varnentchik and the fall of Constantinople.


Constructing a Hagiographic “Canon” in the South Slavonic Literary Tradition. Stanislav’s Menologion: A Case Study

  • Summary/Abstract

    Stanislav’s Menologion (NBKM 1039) is dated to the fourteenth century but it is believed that it preserves much earlier translations originating in the early period of Bulgarian literature. Thus Stanislav’s Menologion is viewed in scholarship as a key codex to the history of the early medieval Slavic hagiographic texts. It represents what we can call medieval hagiographic "canon", a compendium of works disseminated until a later period (until around the 17th c.) among South Slavs. The article addresses issues related to the composition of the manuscript and cultural conventions proved to be important for its formation. Since Stanislav’s Menologion does not reproduce Byzantine pre-Metafrastov menologia (at least not from those described in the capital work of A. Erhard), the reasons for the formation and the reasons for the relative stability of the composition are sought elsewhere. One hypothesis of the study is that the prescriptive-legislative nature of its contents is connected with Typikon. Therefore, the composition of the manuscript is compared to the Typikon that was authoritative in the fourteenth century. Also, the contents of this manuscript is compared to the contents of Service Menaia. The study traces the links of the prescriptions of Typika, institutionalized reading and the formation of a significant corpus of Church feasts that led to the codification of the corpus of texts which were copied and disseminated in Slavic milieux in the late Middle Ages.


The Slavonic Versions of Hippolytus of Rome’s Commentaries on the Book of Prophet Daniel

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article traces the dissemination of the Slavonic version of Commentaries on The Book of Daniel by St. Hippolytus of Rome. All known Slavonic copies of the Commentary are examined, the transmission of the text and the translation itself. For the first time the macrostructure of the known copies is fully examined and the differences in them are shown. The connection demonstrated between the Pogodin Folia of the 11th–12th century and other witnesses containing the text of the Commentaries is discussed. It is proved that they have a common archetype. Also, preliminary conclusions on the language of the translation are made.


Из материалов к Своду древнерусских надписей Новгорода Великого: 10 средневековых граффити из новгородской церкви Николы на Липне

Materials for the Corpus of Old Russian Epigraphy in Great Novgorod: Ten Medieval Graffiti in St. Nicholas in Lipno Church in Novgorod

  • Summary/Abstract

    The author publishes a catalog of 43 graffito-inscriptions from the church of St. Nicholas in Lipno in Novgorod, built in 1292. Their paleographic, orthographic, historical and cultural descriptions are presented. The publication inculdes reproduced photographs and diplomatic edition of the texts. The inscriptions are dated within the turn of the 13th–15th centuries. Most of the inscriptions are memorial and mention the names of Novgorod rulers and inhabitants of the monastery. The place of these sources in the overall system of written culture of medieval Novgorod is discussed.


Три архива XVII века: Новгородский, Смоленский, Тихвинский

Three Archives of the Seventeenth Century (from Novgorod, Smolensk, and Tikhvin)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article discusses three Russian archives which are shared between the Swedish National Archives in Stockholm and the Archives of the Institute of Russian History (Russian Academy of Sciences) in St Petersburg. Specifically, it outlines the history of the archives, which traces back to the 17th century and the reasons for why these documents have been divided between Sweden and Russia. The first two archives provide insights into the day-to-day administration of the municipalities in Smolensk and Novgorod during the Time of Troubles (early 17th century). The third body of Stockholm documents, the Tichvin Archives, outlines the management of the Tikhvin Assumption Monastery. This archive forms merely a fraction of the vast materials located in St Petersburg.


Проблема рецепции средневековой южнославянской письменности – о переводах древнесербских текстов на польский язык

On the Reception of Medieval South Slavic Literature: Translations of Old Serbian Texts into Polish

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article discusses aspects of the reception of the old literature of Slavia Orthodoxa in Poland. This is a complex and multifaceted issue directly connected with the specifics of the two cultural spaces: albeit they seem peculiar and distant, it turns out that they are not so different in their traditions. The question of the translation of the medieval literature of Orthodox Slavs is discussed on the basis of Serbian medieval texts. The article surveys the presence of translations of medieval Serbian texts in Polish anthologies.


The Murals of Saint Petka Church in Svoge

  • Summary/Abstract

    The main subject of this article is the history and iconographical program of St Petka’s church in Svoge near Sofia. In the years of the Bulgarian National Revival, in spite of the significant upswing in the construction and decoration of public and church buildings, opportunities for expression of the painters were limited. In this period we have a number of changes in the iconographical programs that included introduction of new topics and saints. The description of the iconographical program of the church and the analysis of new historical materials about this temple and of the stylistic peculiarities of the murals contributes to the study of the Northern part (the less studied one) of the so-called Sofia Holy Mountain.


The Two Non-Canonical Prayers and the Glagolitic Abecedarium in Psalterium Demetrii Sinaitici

  • Summary/Abstract

    The author analyzes two non-canonical prayers and Glagolitic Abecedarium in that the newly found Glagolitic manuscript Psalterium Demetrii Sinaitic. The Glagolitic Abecedarium is a very important for Glagolitic writing, especially when compared to other Abecedaria. Orthographical and morphological features of the two prayers are analyzed in this paper to test the hypothesis that the manuscript had older Serbian or Croatian archetypes. The analysis of the linguistic features suggests an Old Bulgarian origin.


Stories from the Conversion of the Bulgarians and the Russians in the Annals of Sarandapor

  • Summary/Abstract

    In the National Museum in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, a Liturgikon (Book of Divine Services) is preserved under No. E 543. It was written in the monastery of St. Joachim of Osogovo (Sarandapor) near Kriva Palanka, Republic of Macedonia. On ff. 319r-325v a chronicle was written that is known as Sarandaporski letopis (Annals of Sarandapor). These annals tell the world history from the creation of the world to 1512. The events are presented in a concise manner, with the exception of two short stories of the conversion of the Bulgarians and Russians. This is the only conscious change of the text in the first part of the chronicle. Links with Paralipomen of John Zonaras are identified in this paper. Comparisons with the Useful Tale about the Latins are made. The conclusion of the author is that as juxtaposed with other sources on the conversions of the Bulgarians and Russians, the stories in the Annals of Sarandapor contain new information.


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