The journal subscribes to the Code of Conduct of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE; In cases of possible authorial misconduct, including but not limited to plagiarism, falsification of data, or double publication, the Editorial Board will request an explanation and, where warranted, undertake appropriate steps according to the guidelines described in the COPE flowcharts ( This may eventually include notification of the authorities at the author's institution, withdrawal of the article in question, and exclusion of any further submissions by the same author from the journal.

Authorship credit should be based on substantial contributions to analysis and interpretation of primary sources and data, to the overview of the secondary literature, and to critical revision and final approval of the text to be published. Authorship credit should be extended to all colleagues who have contributed substantially to the ideas and work reported in the publication, and colleagues who have not contributed substantially should not be credited as co-authors. In cases of co-authorship, the individual contributions of each author must be specified in the paper.