Applied Linguistics

Recognizing Handwritten Text in Slavic Manuscripts: a Neural-Network Approach Using Transkribus

Создание и использование исторических корпусов славянских письменных памятников

Creation and Using of Historical Corpora of Slavonic Manuscripts

  • Summary/Abstract
    The requirements for historical corpora of medieval texts 1) are determined by properties of the data and the historical-linguistic, textological and linguo-textological tasks to be solved; 2) and should be realized with the help of special tagging, processing procedures, query parameters and retrieval demonstrations. The corpus should a) have metadata concerning both texts and manuscripts, and involving both linguistic and analytical tagging; b) support the rendering of documents (facsimile and transcription), concordances, lists, and comparison of subcorpora data; c) simplify graphic-orthographic variation during data search and visualization; d) provide tools both for processing and searching linguistic material and its further analysis according to traditional methods; and e) support problem description and resolution by applying corpus methods that engage with the quantity, distribution, co-occurrence, and variation of linguistic units in big data arrays. The realization of these requirements is demonstrated on a subcorpus of three copies of chronicles (Laurentian, Hypatian, Radzivilovsky) from the historical corpus project “Manuscript” (

Electronic Edition and Linguistic Annotation of Slavic Fragments

Терминология в палеославистике и создание сети между существующими цифровыми корпусами Scripta & e-Scripta vol. 18, 2018 floyd Fri, 12/28/2018 - 07:56
Terminology in Palaeoslavistics and Set up Networking between Existing Digital Corpora

The paper discusses problems and points of view related to set up networking between Scripta Bulgarica project (, Repertorium of Old Bulgarian literature and letters (, and also other corpuses (e.g. Codex Suprasliensis from the 10th century:, etc.) for further improvement of linking between data bases. The proposed networking will connect transcribed texts with terminology in palaeoslavistics, and other on-line resources, such as electronic editions of individual sites, electronic dictionaries, encyclopedias, bibliographic arrays and so on. The networking will decided a number of problems that can not yet solve in a satisfactory way. The results will be useful not only for the palaeoslavists but also for librarians, teachers, and students, representatives of mass media and the general public interested in Slavic literacy.

Ontology of terms // Palaeoslavistic // Computer technologies // Standardization of formats // XML approach // Language studies // Language and Literature Studies // Theoretical Linguistics // Applied Linguistics // Studies of Literature // Computational linguistics // Bulgarian Literature // South Slavic Languages // Philology //

Text or Paratext? The Synopsis Apostolorum of Dorotheus of Tyre

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article discusses the Synopsis Apostolorum attributed to Dorotheus of Tyre, which purports to be a list of the Seventy Apostles. It gives a brief overview of the history of the text in Greek and Slavonic. In contrast to the Greek tradition, where it may be found in miscellanies of various types and also in manuscripts of the Apostolos which are provided with relatively extensive apparatus, in Slavonic it is found exclusively in Apostolos manuscripts. The redaction of the Synopsis, moreover, corresponds to the redaction of the Apostolos; there are discernible differences between the texts in each of the three Slavonic redactions in which it is represented. This indicates that it was translated as part of the accompanying text each time that the Apostolos itself was translated. This means that the Slavonic version (unlike the Greek) exists exclusively as paratext, but that this paratextual status, being dependent on the version, is not intrinsic to the work but a function of its history. This in turn points to the necessity of taking the paratext into account in any study of the text of the Bible.


Translating the Subtleties. The Philosophical Categories in the Symeon Collection (Symeon’s Miscellany

  • Summary/Abstract

    When we study translations from classical or Byzantine Greek into Old Bulgarian, we usually encounter two aspects of the question how: firstly, the how of the linguistic rendering, the how of the translation techniques used for one term or another. The second aspect is that of evaluating the how: shall we praise or, on the contrary, express regrets in respect of the translator’s work. Besides these two inherent aspects of the question how, a third one has arisen in the last three decades in Bulgaria. We have a long tradition of translating Old Greek and Byzantine texts into Old Bulgarian, but with respect to the philosophical and theological terminology used nowadays, are we obliged to follow the patterns of the past, the forms of the language, suggested by this millennium long tradition? With respect to the formation of the Bulgarian philosophical and theological language, the Symeon’s Miscellany is an extremely important source because from f. 222 to f. 237 a range of issues is discussed as answers to questions 29 and 30. This section of the writing includes clarification of terms, categories and concepts from the classical Greek and/or the Christian philosophy and demands profound interdisciplinary research.


Указатели названий и инципитов разделов и глав славянских списков Откровения Иоанна Богослова как поисковый аппарат и основа для изучения редакций текста 

Indexes of Names and Incipita of Sections and Chapters of the Slavonic Witnesses of the Revelation of John the Theologian as a Search Tool and a Basis for Studying Versions of the Text

Иерархическая модель гимнографической терминологии: дигитальное приложение

A Hierarchical Model of the Hymnographic Terminology: Digital Application

Название и самоназвание в номинативных комплексах рукописных книг XIV–XIX веков (на материале Отдела рукописей Российской государственной библиотеки) Scripta & e-Scripta vol. 18, 2018 floyd Fri, 12/28/2018 - 07:24
Title and Self-title in Nominative Complexes of Manuscripts 14th–19th Centuries (Based on the Material of the Manuscript Department of the Russian State Library)

The article defines the concepts related to the naming of written monuments in the Slavonic-Russian manuscript tradition. The definitions of basic concepts: name, self, complex nominative, nominative unit. Identified the causes, the appearance of names in different parts of the same manuscript books associated with the execution name and the self of different functions: nominative, informative, hermeneutics, didactic, testoobraznaja, aesthetic. A comparison of the concepts of title and self-title on the example of handwritten books stored in the manuscript Department of the Russian state library, the Fund of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. It is revealed that the self-name is more extensive and informative than the name, but the name, in turn, differs in structural and semantic variability. Variability of names in the composition of nominative complexes is characterized.

Language studies // Language and Literature Studies // Theoretical Linguistics // Applied Linguistics // Studies of Literature // Philology // Palaeoslavistic // Titles of manuscripts // Definitions // History of texts // History of books // Putting into practice //
Проложные жития в средневековой южнославянской книжности Scripta & e-Scripta vol. 18, 2018 floyd Thu, 12/27/2018 - 07:21
The Prologue Vitae in the Medieval South-Slavonic Literature

The article deals with the review of prologue vitae (sinaxariа), which are short hagiographic (narrative) texts for saints and festivals, which are contained in two calendar liturgical books – Prologue and Menaia. They are founded in the composition of two types of hagiographic sinaxaria, in the Slavic literature called Simple and Verse Prologue. The first is distinguished by the verses (the two- or the three-verses), written before the sinaxaria vitae. A comparison is made between the prologue vitae from the Simple and the Verse Prologue of three popular Christian saints – George, Demetrius, Nicholas. To them are added the vitae from the Simple and the Verse Prologue for St Petka (Parasceve of Epibatae), St Ivan Rilski (John of Rila) and St Simeon and Sava (of Serbia) – emblematic South Slavic saints.

Language studies // Language and Literature Studies // Theoretical Linguistics // Applied Linguistics // Studies of Literature // Philology // Translation Studies // Prologue Vitae // Simple Prologue // Prologue in Verse // Menaion // Commemoration of saints // Commemoration of South-Slavonic saints // Liturgical books //

Textological Notes on De Christo et Antichristo by Hippolytus of Rome in the Greek and Slavonic Manuscript Tradition

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article has two main focuses – first, it follows the most significant and important Antichrist myth researches, and secondly, the Greek tradition of De Christo et Antichristo by Hippolytus of Rome and the Slavonic versions of the text. The Slavonic witnesses are examined according to their omissions, additions, grammatical and morphological variations, and also some of the changes in the Bible quotations are highlighted. This work does not pretend to present new information on the Greek sources but to demonstrate how important the Slavonic translation is to the interpretation of the Greek original. The most interesting results are pointed out in the relation with the Greek text itself, where the proximity between the Greek fragment of Meteora Monastery 573 and the Slavonic tradition is presented.


Daily Life and Religion: The Vienna Euchologia Project

  • Summary/Abstract

    The study of the Euchologia (singular: Euchologion), the prayer books to be used by the clergy, has long been neglected by medieval historians. This is beginning to change, as more and more scholars discover the potential of the Euchologia as a source for social history. Indeed, Euchologia contain besides Eucharistic and sacramental liturgies also prayers for various occasions of the daily life of women, men and children from various strata of society and every geographical region of the Byzantine world. Thus, the Euchologia offer a different perspective than most Byzantine written sources, which concentrate on urban, male, often ordained elites. In 2015 a new research project dedicated to the study of Euchologia was initiated at the Division of Byzantine Research of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. The project seeks to study Greek-language Euchologia copied up to the year 1650 and the prayers they contain.


Comparison of Four Medieval Bulgarian Inscriptions by Letter Frequency Scripta & e-Scripta vol. 16-17, 2017 floyd Wed, 07/12/2017 - 21:09

This article compares the letter frequencies of four old Bulgarian inscriptions: the Samuel inscription of 993, the Samuel inscription of Voden, the Bitola inscription of Ivan Vladislav and the Tărnovo inscription of Ivan Asen II. We establish the proximity of the letter frequencies of these inscriptions and thus obtain an argument in favor of the view that the Voden inscription is a product of the same scribal tradition and orthography, and of the same epoch, to which both Samuel’s of 993 and Bitola’s inscriptions belong. The impressive ‘frequency proximity’ of the Voden and Bitola inscriptions is used to offer the hypothesis that the Samuel Dynasty’s royal administration has had a consistent tradition of writing and orthography.

History // Language studies // Literature Studies // Cultural history // Applied Linguistics // Middle Ages // South Slavic Languages // Philology //
Аріевъ ледъ Scripta & e-Scripta vol. 16-17, 2017 floyd Wed, 07/12/2017 - 21:05
Ares Ice

The paper discusses the translation of Ἄρειος πάγος into Slavonic, which until the late seventeenth century is almost invariably Аріевъ ледъ. It is suggested that although this does not correctly render the original meaning of the Greek, translators (and others, including their Greek contemporaries) did not necessarily perceive place names as literally meaningful. Аріевъ ледъ was thus simply the established Slavonic name for the Areopagus, and known as such to Slavonic writers. The principle place where it occurs is in the Acts of the Apostles, where it is used consistently, and there is a varied body of commentary in Slavonic attached to this passage, which is discussed in detail. The use of the toponym in a number of non-Biblical texts is also traced.

History // Language studies // Literature Studies // Cultural history // Applied Linguistics // Studies of Literature // Middle Ages // South Slavic Languages // Philology // Translation Studies //

Writing Old Cyrillic and Glagolitic in GNU/Linux with the Bulgarian Phonetic Traditional Keyboard Layout

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