Scripta & e-Scripta vol. 16-17, 2017

Scripta e-Scripta vol. 16-17, 2017

Sv. Kliment Ohridski: His Tombstone and its Inscription

  • Summary/Abstract

    In the Presveta Bogoroditsa Perivlepta church in Ohrid the tombstone of St Kliment Ohridski is preserved. This large stone slab, with several inscriptions from the thirteenth and sixteenth centuries, remained there, while the holy relics of St Kliment have been transferred back to its original place – the church, built by the saint himself (completely rebuilt in 2001–2002). Until recently not much attention has been given to the tombstone. The paper offers a new reading of the main inscription, illustrated by the first contemporary picture and a new drawing made out of it, thus correcting many mistakes in the earlier publications.

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Comparison of Four Medieval Bulgarian Inscriptions by Letter Frequency

  • Summary/Abstract

    This article compares the letter frequencies of four old Bulgarian inscriptions: the Samuel inscription of 993, the Samuel inscription of Voden, the Bitola inscription of Ivan Vladislav and the Tărnovo inscription of Ivan Asen II. We establish the proximity of the letter frequencies of these inscriptions and thus obtain an argument in favor of the view that the Voden inscription is a product of the same scribal tradition and orthography, and of the same epoch, to which both Samuel’s of 993 and Bitola’s inscriptions belong. The impressive ‘frequency proximity’ of the Voden and Bitola inscriptions is used to offer the hypothesis that the Samuel Dynasty’s royal administration has had a consistent tradition of writing and orthography.

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Аріевъ ледъ

Ares Ice

  • Summary/Abstract

    The paper discusses the translation of Ἄρειος πάγος into Slavonic, which until the late seventeenth century is almost invariably Аріевъ ледъ. It is suggested that although this does not correctly render the original meaning of the Greek, translators (and others, including their Greek contemporaries) did not necessarily perceive place names as literally meaningful. Аріевъ ледъ was thus simply the established Slavonic name for the Areopagus, and known as such to Slavonic writers. The principle place where it occurs is in the Acts of the Apostles, where it is used consistently, and there is a varied body of commentary in Slavonic attached to this passage, which is discussed in detail. The use of the toponym in a number of non-Biblical texts is also traced.

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The Earliest Slavonic Translation of the Song of Songs from Greek: A Possible Influence from the Vulgate?


Byzantines, Bulgarians and Serbs in the Vita of Saint Vladimir in the Gesta Regum Sclavorum


The Isaiah Code: Highlights in the History of a Catena in Slavic Tradition

  • Summary/Abstract

    This study seeks to trace out the structure of the Book of Prophet Isaiah with commentaries and to explore what that structure reveals about the text in some manuscripts of the East Slavonic and South Slavonic traditions. There are three conclusions made as a result of the present study. Firstly, the analysis of the structure and the identification of the readings in Catena Slavonica in Isaiam shows a translation of a catena which occupies an intermediate position between the Catena in Isaiam by John Drungarios and the one by Andrew the Presbyter whichever is the earliest. The CSI resembles both. Secondly, the value of the CSI should not be underestimated, because it includes a translation of scholia by Theodulus whose work is now almost entirely lost. Therefore the CSI could provide new evidence for the content of the lost Byzantine original of Theodulus’ Commentary on Isaiah. Thirdly, the comparison of the numerals in the margin of РНБ F.I.461 with the sequence and number of the biblical pericopes and relevant scholia in the Russian manuscripts clearly and unequivocally demonstrates that although F.I. 461 is the earliest evidence of Preslav translation in a Tărnovo redaction, it is still a single link in the chain of the Slavonic tradition and has a many shortcomings compared to the CSI in the Russian tradition.

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The Parable of the Unicorn in the Story of Barlaam and Josaphat


Двойная рецепция при формировании княжеской службы: служба св. Александру Невскому как модель

A Double Reception in the Formation of a Princely Service: The Service of St Alexander Nevsky as a Model

  • Summary/Abstract

    The Service of St Alexander Nevsky was written by Monk Michael of the Roždestvenskij monastyr’ (Nativity monastery) in Vladimir. He was one of the writers, belonging with the circle of Metropolitan Macarius, who composed princely services (and sometimes vitas) for new Russian saints. Most of the services are compilations of verses and hymns and more or less exact borrowings (and sometimes compositions according to models). In the Service of St Alexander Nevsky, the most refined of Monk Michael’s works, the hymnographer utilized various models to combine them into one canon, thus giving it the colour of an original work. It is important to add that Monk Michael used Slavic translations instead of original Greek texts, a fact proved by textological comparison. The service, dedicated to a saint prince, canonized in the sixteenth century, was the only one included in the Menaion. Together with the especial respect and veneration of the new saint, it was one of the reasons why his service became a model of other princely services. It is worth noting that instead of hymns, originally borrowed for the new service, exactly the adapted hymns to St Alexander were taken as standard for princely services, thus allowing a double reception of the translated hymns. For the purpose of the investigation the author analyzes the services of St Roman of Ugleč, St Daniel of Moscow, the Service of Finding of his Relics including, as well as the service to St Dowmant of Pskov.

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Chronological Layers in Translated Texts: Observations on a Sticheron of Archangel Michael


Неизвестный пергаментный отрывок кириллического Евангелия апракос полного из библиотеки Духовной семинарии Госианум в Ольштыне

An Unknown Parchment Fragment of the Cyrillic Gospel (Full Lectionary) from the Seminary’s Library in Olsztyn

  • Summary/Abstract

    The author introduces a new (previously unknown) parchment fragment (one leaf) of the Full Gospel lectionary from the Library of the Hosianum Seminary of the Archdiocese of Warmia in Olsztyn (Poland). The article presents a concise description and a general characteristic (with textological analysis) of the fragment along with its publication (with three photos). Cyrillic fragment of the Gospel manuscript, which was used together with Latin one to bind several early printed Latin books, is dated to the end of fourteenth or beginning of fifteenth century, but not later than the year 1420. The article presents also a short history of the Library of the Hosianum Seminary as far as it concerns the history of the Cyrillic Gospel fragment.

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Двуязычные индексы в палеославистичной лексикографической традиции как инструмент изучения истории перевода в Slavia Orthodoxa

The Bilingual Indexes in the Paleoslavistic Lexicographical Tradition as a Tool of Studying the History of Translation in Slavia Orthodoxa


К вопросу о переводе агиографического синаксаря (простого пролога) в свете новейших исследований

Towards the Question: When and Where the Simple Prologue Was Translated in the Light of the New Studies

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article examines the current hypotheses about time and place of translation of so-called Simple Prologue (hagiographic Synaxarium) in the Slavonic environment. Special attention is paid to the latest studies in the field. As additional arguments to answer the question are given the data on Russian and South Slavonic (mostly Bulgarian) commemorations in the early version of the Prologue. These data allowed to reject the existing hypotheses and to support the conclusion that the Simple Prologue was translated in the time of Samuil of Bulgaria in Archbishopric of Ohrid at the end of tenth – beginning of eleventh century. The translation was made very soon after the occurrence of Synaxarium in Byzantium and was due to the liturgical necessity.

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Reconsidering the Textual Transmission of the Slavonic Quaestiones adAntiochum ducem

  • Summary/Abstract

    The present contribution addresses questions concerning the textual history of the Slavonic translation of the Quaestiones ad Antiochum ducem (CPG 2257) and challenges some of the positions taken by William Veder in his recent edition (2016) of this eratopocritic collection. A selection of key text witnesses (among which the Izbornik of 1076, the Troitskij sbornik and the Laurentian florilegium of 1348) are examined in order to distinguish the different textual layers and to arrive at a better understanding of the text’s transmission history. It is argued that there is no firm proof for the existence of a full corpus of QAD questions in Slavonic prior to the thirteenth century and that the textual tradition of the QAD is marked by progressive expansion and continuous conflation.

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The Greek Tradition of Hippolytus’ Commentarii in Danielem and the Slavonic Translation

  • Summary/Abstract

    The article highlights the Greek manuscripts, containing Hippolytus of Rome’s Commentarii in Danielem, the history of their research and their content, as well as the relation among them and the Slavonic translation. The author reveals all Greek and Slavonic sources, known today, and demonstrates how the two versions of the text correspond to each other. The main focus is placed on the cod. Meteoron 573, of the tenth century, proven to be the closest and mostly related to the Slavonic translation. This matter was profoundly revealed by comparison of contents, titles and structure of the texts of both versions, which is briefly presented in this paper.

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Multiple Translations and Their Context. Praxis de stratilatis in the Medieval South Slavic Tradition

  • Summary/Abstract

    My paper focuses on the earliest account of St Nicholas of Myra (Praxis de stratilatis) and its adaption in the South Slavic literary tradition. Praxis de stratilatis dates back to the fourth century and it was the only narrative of the saint for more than three centuries. Even after the eight century when the local cult grew and other narratives about the saint appeared Praxis de statilatis remained one of the most authoritative texts in the literature and the art. The text was translated not only once but twice at the dawn of Old Bulgarian literature, probably as early as the tenth century. The appearance of more than one translation is considered as a witness of the specificity of the literature translated from Greek in the Old Bulgarian tradition, on the one hand, and of the needs and attitude of the readership, on the other. Main hypothesis of my paper is that different kinds of manuscripts provoked the double translations of the text. These are, on the one hand, the Panegyricomartyrologia (known as Minejno­Triodni panegyritsi in the Slavic tradition), which are calendar miscellanies consisting of narratives and eulogies for both cycles of feasts – the movable and the immovable, and, on the other hand, the Menologia (known as Čet’i­Minei), consisting of texts only for the immovable feasts. The textual and contextual analysis of the preserved witnesses of both translations of Praxis de stratilatis shows the cultural and literary needs of the readership which turned out to be important for copying and disseminating the translated text.

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A Byzantine Epigram in the Pictorial Cycle of Akathistos Hymn for the Virgin from the Narthex of Kremikovtsi Monastery St George (1493)

  • Summary/Abstract

    The research paper presents an unpublished inscription in Greek language from the narthex of the Kremikovtsi Monastery St George near Sofia – an epigram of the famous Byzantine poet Theodoros Prodromos, who lived at the court of the Komnenian Dynasty in the twelfth century. Being part of the scene Flight into Egypt and – more precisely, – being written in the scroll of a female figure – a personification of the city, no parallel of this inscription has been attested so far in post-Byzantine art. The only other scroll like this has been discovered in the church of the Seslavtsi Monastery St Nicholas near Sofia, but the text there is probably just a decorative detail. A complete study of the preserved part of the damaged inscription is conducted, together with a discussion about its linguistic and literary specifics in the context of the high Byzantine poetry and the Biblical exegesis. The aim is to outline and to describe the raison d’être of this religious epigram (ἱερὸν ἐπίγραμμα) as an expressive instrument for direct communication with the audience through its main stylistic feature – the dialogue between the Saviour and the layman, between the divine and the human nature of Christ. The poetical form chosen by Theodoros Prodromos immediately draws the viewers’ attention and it compels them to reflect upon the scene. Theodoros Prodromos’ epigram in the Kremikovtsi Monastery offers an exceptional and significant proof that the connection of Balkan art to the achievements of the Christian culture of the former Byzantine empire was still alive in the fifteenth century.

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Elena N. Boeck. Imaging the Byzantine Past: The Perception of History in the Illustrated Manuscripts of Skylitzes and Manasses. Cambridge University Press, 2015, 314 pp., ill. ISBN 978-1-107-08581-7

Elena N. Boeck. Imaging the Byzantine Past: The Perception of History in the Illustrated Manuscripts of Skylitzes and Manasses. Cambridge University Press, 2015, 314 pp., ill. ISBN 978-1-107-08581-7


Julian Petkov. Altslavische Eschatologie. Texte und Studien zur apokalyptischen Literatur in kirchenslavischer Überlieferung (Texte und Arbeiten zum neutestamentlichen Zeitalter, Bd. 59). Tübingen: Francke, 2016, 495 Seiten. ISBN-10: 3772085318

(Julian Petkov. Altslavic eschatology. Texts and Studies on Apocalyptic Literature in the Church of the Slavonic Tradition (Texts and Works on the New Testament Age, vol. 59). Tübingen: Francke, 2016, 495 pages. ISBN-10: 3772085318


Маргарет Димитрова. Средновековни молитви за родилки. Критическо издание [Margaret Dimitrova. Srednovekovni molitvi za rodilki. Kritičesko izdanie]. Sofia: Heron Press, 2014, 229 pp. ISBN 9789545803451

Margaret Dimitrova. Medieval prayers for new mothers. Critical Edition [Margaret Dimitrova. Srednovekovni molitvi za rodilki. Kritičesko izdanie]. Sofia: Heron Press, 2014, 229 pp. ISBN 9789545803451


Мария С. Мушинская. Изборник 1076 года: текстология и язык [Marija S. Mušinskaja. Izbornik 1076 goda: tekstologija i jazyk]. Sankt-Petersburg: Nestor-Istorija, 2015, 480 pp. ISBN 978-5-4469-0825-7

Maria S. Mushinskaya. The 1076 Miscellany: textology and language [Marija S. Mušinskaja. Izbornik 1076 goda: tekstologija i jazyk]. Sankt-Petersburg: Nestor-Istorija, 2015, 480 pp. ISBN 978-5-4469-0825-7


По пути славянской печатной книги на Балканах и в Юго-Восточной Европе

Along the way of the Slavic printed book in the Balkans and South-Eastern Europe

  • Summary/Abstract

    Ivan Petrov. Od inkunabułów do pierwszych gramatyk. Konteksty rozwoju bułgarskiego języka literackiego koniec XV – początek XVII wieka. Łódź: Wydawnictwo uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2015, 268 pp. ISBN 978-83-7969-792-2

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Анета Димитрова. Златоструят в преводаческата дейност на старобългарските книжовници [Aneta Dimitrova. Zlatostrujat v prevodačeskata dejnost na starobălgarskite knižovnitsi]. Sofia: Avalon, 2016, 453 pp. ISBN 978-954-9704-36-5

Aneta Dimitrova. Zlatostruy in the translation activity of Old Bulgarian bookmen [Aneta Dimitrova. Zlatostrujat v prevodačeskata dejnost na starobălgarskite knižovnitsi]. Sofia: Avalon, 2016, 453 pp. ISBN 978-954-9704-36-5


Dan Zamfirescu. Marile Minee de lectură de la Tărnovo ale Patriarhului Eftimie. Ediţie facsimilată de pe manuscrisele de la Dragomirna şi Putna. Vol. 1. Bucureşti: Rosa Vânturilor, 2015, 858 pp. ISBN 978-973-1735-38-2

Dan Zamfirescu. Turnovo menologia of Patriarch Euthymius. Implicated edition of the Dragomirna and Putna manuscripts. Vol. 1. Bucharest: Rosa Vânturilor, 2015, 858 pp. ISBN 978-973-1735-38-2


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