Prof., PhD Sofia St Kliment Okhridski University, Bulgaria
This issue of Scripta & e-Scripta is realized as a co-operative project with prof. Dr. Sebastian Kempgen, Department of Slavic Studies, University of Bamberg (Germany), with a grant from "Oberfrankenstiftung".
The font Kliment Std is a result of the work of the author on a number of fonts used in medievalistic publications – they include Glagolhic fonts, fonts in Old-Bulgarian Cyrillic, special diacritic signs and fonts with decorative arrangement. Although they are well-known from the academic editions, they were not widely accessible for the Slavistic community and this situation is improved by the distribution of the presented font. It can be found in the official Web site of the author and can be legally used for academic purposes, publications and studies. The main limitations are: 1) not to be used in editions and events which violate the copyright; 2) the user does not have the right to change, modify or rename this product. The font was developed on the basis of the standard Unicode and it is distributed in format TTF. This makes it usable in the system MS Windows, as well as in the system Mac OS X. it contains supplements: Latin alphabet, Cyrillic, Glagolithic, Greek, diacritics, and special punctuation marks. As the content and the location of the Old-Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet in the Unicode space has not yet been established, the font has the possibility to evolve, in order to adequately reflect all requirements of this standard.
Keywords: computer fonts; Glagolhic fonts; fonts in Old-Bulgarian Cyrillic; Unicode standard
Manuscript cataloguing can serve to make information about text and image traditions available to scholars in humanities, and the ease of Internet publication now makes it possible to disseminate this information broadly and efficiently.The present provides a brief account of the available databases.
The International Workshop and Conference Azbuky.Net (Sofia, 24–27 October 2005) was organized by the Institute of Bulgarian Language, the Institute of Literature, the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, and the Central Library of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS). This was one in a sequences of forums over the past decade that have affirmed the position of Bulgaria as one of the coordinating centrers for the activities of leading specialists in the field of the application of information technologies to humanities scholarship. Among the participants in Azbuky.Net were scholars and students from Bulgaria, Great Britain, Germany, Denmark, Lithuania, Norway, Rumania, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, the United States of America, etc. The conference was held right before the Annual meeting of Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) Consortium (28–30 October, Sofia), which provided an opportunity for more scholars and lecturers to attend Azbuky.Net, and which resulted in very fruitful meetings and discussions.
In the article consequently have been analyzed all cases with a held weak “yer” in the prefixes “sa-“, “va-“ and “vaz-“ in the contemporary Bulgarian language. In the prefix ”sa-“ the “yer” vowel is kept not only before a following root with an initial s or z, but also before any kind of consonants, compare sabariam, sabitie, sablazan, sablicham, sabludavam, saboleznovavam, sabudia, sabuia, savet, saveshtavam, saglasna, saglasia se, sadeistvam, sajalia, sakrusha, sachinia, sashia. Before a following consonant the “yer” is always kept, compare for example saedinia, saesha, saoraja, saumeia, saorudia, saobrazia, etc. Especially significant are the cases where with one and the same morpheme structure, once the “yer” has dropped, as its phonetic position requires, and in another – it is preserved. Such cases are not scanty in the Bulgarian language, compare sbera, sbiram, sbor, but sabera, sabiram, sabor; svestia, sviast, savest; svarshen and savarshen, sgledam, sgleda and sagledam; sgrada and sagradia; sgresha and sagresha; sdruja and sadruja; sdarjam and sadarjam; skria, skrit, but sakroven, sakrovishte; spregna and saprejen; storia and satvoria. The prefix “va-“ usually loses its final yer before following verb roots with an initial consonant, as here, the very peculiarity of the newly formed consonant combination (in a number of cases in full contradiction with the inherited from proto-Slavonic structure of the syllable, compare vstapvam, vstrastiavam, vsmukvam, vsmakvam) helps the morpheme parsing of the word and the distinguishing of the prefix. The generalization of the preposition- prefix as f in the colloquial language is also an expression of the aspiration to achieve a clear morpheme structure. In the prefix “vaz-“ with exception of some Russian borrowings such as vzriv and vzvod the weak yer is always kept. The only exception in a domestic word is the verb vzema, which in Bulgarian is considered to be formed by zema and the prefix v, as we can see from its derivatives – izzema, vazzema, etc., whose fate clearly shows that the drop of the yer in vaz- leads to the breaking of the uniform morpheme vz- in the preposition v- and the initial root z- to an undesired decomposition of the word. The behaviour of the weak yer-s in the suffixes is also subject of morphological restrictions, mostly connected with the aspiration to generalize the base of the word. In some cases the holding of the weak yer brings additional grammatical information: in the suffix –aka the yer is held in a weak position, only if the substantive is a noun, compare jaltak, jaltaci and malak, malki; the countable form and the definite form of the masculine nouns also hold the weak yer, etc. The detailed analysis shows that similar to the behaviour of the root yer-s, the behaviour of the yer-s in the prefixes and suffixes is also subject mainly of morphological and morphonological regularities and in a smaller degree it simply depends on phonetical conditions.
Keywords: Bulgarian phonetic; weak yers; morphological analysis; prefixes; suffixes
In the article the typology of the genitive is analyzed in the Old-Bulgarian language through the characterization of two word classes – nouns and verbs. Studied are the binary oppositions in the use of the genitive – active nouns (denoting names of people and animals) and inactive nouns (denoting natural sites, phenomena, children and little animals, products of the human activity, etc.) and, respectively – active and inactive verbs. The conclusions are based on the thesis that predicative centers are the nouns of a certain type which have their own internal and external activity - a subject, or those which only have their own internal activity – a pseudo-subject. The formation of the semantic concepts is based on the image of a) activity (external or internal active action or state), b) inactivity (only internal action or state), c) separable-inseparable belonging and d) discretion-indiscretion. Under a detailed analysis are the grammatical determiners of the genitive and their variants. The connection between the semantics of the nouns and the respective forms of the genitive is studied. The verb control of the genitive of proved, as the cases of a genitive with different semantic groups of verbs (which mean deprivation; which mean emotional or psychic state of the subject; verbs with the negative particle –ne; transitive verbs; verbs formed are supin, etc.) are examined. The conclusion is that the genitive is a grammatical expression of pseudo-subjects and inseparably connected with them pseudo-objects.
Keywords: Old-Bulgarian language; Verb governing; binary oppositions in the use of the genitive; semantic analysis
In the article the history of the translations of the service minei in the Slavonic tradition by 14 Slavonic manuscripts is examined. Manuscript CMNL № 114 is analyzed, a fragment of a service menaion from the 13th century, Bulgarian by origin, where the oldest translation is presented. The comparisons with another service menaia – from the Monastery of Dechany, No 32 from the 13th – 14th century, show that the oldest translation has been subject of reediting. The presence of another independent translation is established in manuscripts No 114 CMNL, a fragment from the 13th century and No 1/5 OSL (part of the Dobriayan minei) from the 13th century, which does not coincide with the earliest translation, nor with the one that exists in the South-Slavonic menaia from the 14th-15th century by the Jerusalem regulations. Grounded is the view that every hymnographic genre (tropar, stihira, sedalen, condac and icos, canon and each separate tropar of the canon) in the structure of the service should be studied separately in the context of the history of the translations of the service menaia, which will allow us to clarify the amount of the multiple translations. The examined material shows that the advent of the latest “Athos” translation of the service menaion, based on the Jerusalem regulations, is preceded of new translations of separate services (or parts of them), done in the 13th century, without relying on those regulations. Regarding the multiple translations of one and the same text (the Service for the first-martyr Stefan has four translations), it would not be correct to talk about “first” (early) and “second” (late) translation of the service menaia (definitions of V. Jagich), as each service has its own story of the text. Enclosed is a critical edition of parts of the services for the second and third of August – condac and icos of the Service for first-martyr Stefan, as well as fragments of the canon for the Venerable Dalmat, Isakay and Favst, parallel with the Greek text, accompanied with a detail commentary.
Keywords: Hymnography; service menaion; Jerusalem typicon; “Athos” translation
The study is dedicated to the copies of two texts in manuscript CMNL 1039: Acta Thomae and Torment Thomae. They are compared with the Greek tradition, based on the well-known critic publications. Two hypotheses have been made: about the closeness of the Slavonic variant to a concrete textological group of Greek texts and about the differences in the ways of translation of the two works. Attention is paid to rare or unknown words and expressions from the medieval sources. The two texts have been published typed, as the segmentation of the text follows the division in the Greek editions.
Keywords: manuscript CMNL 1039; St. Thoma acts in India; Slavonic variants of Greek texts; differences in the ways of translation; rare or unknown words and expressions from the medieval sources
Object of a research interest is the literary history of the so called Third Russian revision of the Tarnovo prologue vita of the national Bulgarian St. John of Rila. The revision is resented in six copies from the end of the 15th to the 17th century (the earliest in prologue for September – February from the end of the 15th century, RNB, Main assembly, No F. I. 297) and it is distributed in collections with permanent and mixed structure: in prologues about the winter half of the church year, in codex with vitas, instructions and stories, in collections with services and vitas. Discussed are issues about the Third revision of the Prologue, whose origin is connected with the literature of Novgorod and Pskov, and in whose composition we find the earliest copies of the new version. In the Bulgarian, Serbian and Moldovan-Romanian hagiographic tradition this version is not known. The new version of the Tarnovo prologue vita later penetrates the literature of the Moscow state and the Moscow cultural centers, and its distribution continues in the 16th and 17th century. In this way it turns into a significant element of the entire cult of the Bulgarian saint in the medieval Slavonic Cyrillic tradition. The results from the textological study of the copies and the interrelations between the separate texts have been presented.
Keywords: Third Russian revision of the Tarnovo prologue; Vita of St. John of Rila; literature of Novgorod and Pskov
The article studies the possible ethno-cultural content of one of the anathemas in the Synodicon of Boril from the 14th century, connected with the day of John the Baptist (Midsummer Day), in the context of the doctrinal and socio-historical aspects of the dual heresies of the Bulgarian Bogomils and the Catars from Langdoc, South France. Its main purpose is to comment, not to solve the complex problem of the interaction of the folklore culture and the ritual practices of the heretics, as it remains insufficiently documented by the written sources and suggests a great number of, often controversial or mutually incompatible, interpretations. By producing separate facts from studies on South French ethnographic material and emphasizing on the main semantic codes of the holiday in the collective memory of the European Middle Ages, the authoress supports the view of identity of the assessing paradigms towards the heresies and the paganism. An attempt has been made to parallel these – hypotheses more than conclusions – to a manuscript text material where it allows relevant perusals. The raised question is added to a number of others, which do not have a definite answer and which involve a more thorough examination on the paradoxes of the nomination on the topic The Bogomils about Themselves and the Others about Them.
Keywords: Аnathemas in the Synodicon of Boril; the Fest of John the Baptist; dual heresies; Bulgarian Bogomils; Catars
In the article the mechanic omissions and mistakes in the text of the Erotapokriseis of Pseudo-Kaisarios are analyzes on the bases of the textological examination of nine of so far eleven known Slavonic copies of the composition. It is established that in it there are three types of absences of text: 1) due to a lack of pages in the hyparchetype of part of the existing testimonies, 2) due to a physical defect in the Old-Bulgarian protograph, from which the Russian copies derive and 3) absences which occurred during the translation. Published for the first time are fragments, which were absent from the edition done by arch. Leonid. In the article some typical mistakes and new meanings are also studied, whose appearance is related to the technology of the translation. The number of the mistakes, which could not have been made if the text had been before the translator’s eyes, leads to the assumption that the translation of the Erotapokriseis was probably done through dictation, aloud pronunciation of the Greek text.
Keywords: Textologycal analysis; Erotapokriseis of Pseudo-Kaisarios; typical mistakes; technology of the translation
Having in mind that the specially organized rhythmic phrase is one of the most characteristic peculiarities in the style of Euthimius of Tarnovo, the authoress of this article focuses her attention to the figure of speech isocolic. Her purpose is to mark the main principles of structuring the isocolic in the Saint Euthimius vitas and eulogies, and also the analysis principles of these isocolics. The authoress prefers to concentrate on only one isocolic, as a thorough analysis of the rhythmic in the Saint Euthimius style cannot be the object of such a brief study. An isocolic of the Vita of St. Petka has been taken as an example. In it analyzed is the punctuation, the syntagmatic structure, the rhythmic, the grammatical and lexical structure. The observations bear evidence that the meaning, syntax and rhythm form a united structure, where we can clearly distinguish two halves with a complex symmetry between each other. The accumulation of several markers about the structure of the columns in the isocolic may be interpreted as a defense mechanism, coded by the author, against later interventions in the text and the text structure at its copying and performing. The main principles of isocolic structuring are a complicated parallelism and contradistinction. The complicated parallelism is manifested between respective columns, as well as between the halves of the isocolic period. This peculiar parallelism finds expression in the following: 1) presence of syntactic, semantic and rhetoric similarities and differences in the respective columns of the isocolic, 2) the number of the accents in the two halves of the period is the same, but their distribution in the composing columns is different and 3) by given markers (mainly rhetoric) the first two columns in each half of the isocolic are parallel, and the rest are not. The analysis of the syntagmatic structure reveals that the punctuation simultaneously follows syntactic, as well as rhetoric principles.
Keywords: Rhethoric; St. Euthimius of Tarnovo; organized rhythmic phrase; isocolic structures
In the article an attempt has been made to denote the range of problems, occurring at the study of the historical syntax. Discussed is a material, subject of a research, which in quantity and quality differs from the subject of the synchronic studies. First of all, the old Slavonic sources are taken into consideration, in the broad sense of the concept, containing evidence about the language of ancient epochs, among which the Bible occupies one of the central places. The author suggests analyzing representatives of the most ancient period, the mid-Bulgarian translation, translations of Bulgarian homilies of the late period, representatives of the church-Slavonic tradition and the contemporary literary language. The sources, which may be chosen for the analysis, reflect the main phases of development of the Bulgarian language; their functional (semantic) study, mainly of a representative sample of forms, realizing a concrete semantic category, would allow the achievement of the goals of the functional approach. The conclusions of such a research, from the point of view of the development of the actual forms, are not very likely to bring us any findings. Nevertheless, it is presumed that the results of this kind of analysis will help us, al least to a small degree, to get closer to the answer of the question of the functioning and development of the language.
Keywords: historical syntax; synchronic studies; functional approach; dynamic of the language evolution
The article supports the thesis that the Ekphraseis of Paul the Silentiary (Ekphraseis of Hagia Sophia and Ekphraseis of its Ambo), which are usually studied as official rhetoric descriptions (ekphraseis) or as imperial orations (basilikos logos), are composed as adventus, maybe in honor of an imperial military triumph at a ceremony for the reception of the ruler to the city. Although the main parts of the orations are composed by rhetoric descriptions of “St. Sophia” and its pulpit, expressions standard for the adventus are used, according to the directions of the rhetoric manuals and their reflection in works of art. The obligatory eulogies of the deeds and the virtues of the emperor, however, are substituted by a description of the building as an embodiment of the imperial virtue. Paul the Silentiary praises the emperor Justinian as a victor of the conspiracies and the demonic powers and as a founder and a defender of a Christian empire.
Keywords: “St. Sophia” Church; Ekphraseis of Paul the Silentiary; imperial military triumph; adventus (basilikos logos)
The paper examines the treatment of the story through the language of the image in one of the most interesting churches in Moldavia (Romania) – Sucevitsa, as it tries to give more general conclusions about such kind of transcriptions in the proto-Byzantine epoch. As a matter of principle, the abundance of inscriptions, inserted in the image, contains a strong rhetoric connotation. In the first part of the study, the subject of the research is the epigraphic verbosity in the image, as a guarantee of narrativeness – in this way the inscription is examined as a means of narrativeness. The question of the discourse of the image, however, turns into a problem for the iconicity of the written material – the text goes beyond the framework of the narrative in order to turn itself into an iconic sign. Even more paradoxical is this problem in the epoch of the hesychasm – then comes a tension caused by the discursiveness of the sacred image and the hesychast requirement of silence.
Keywords: Sucevitsa - Moldavia (Romania); church monumental art of 17 c.; transcriptions in the proto-Byzantine epoch; inscriptions; inserted in the image
The musical sign with the shape of the Greek letter "theta" is used in the old-Byzantine notations to mark a melodic ornament or a melisma. This sign is normally present in the theta notation, which by its specifics reflects only certain melismas. It has been established that the places of the theta signs coincide in the differently noted copies of a certain Greek chant; in other words, if we notice a theta above a separate word in the stihir of the Greek Menaia (or Triodion, Penticostarion, Octoihos, etc.), it is almost certain that we will find the same sign above the same word in the thoroughly noted copy of the stihira in the Greek chant Stiherarion. This coincidence allows us to think that the different Byzantine notations reflect a similar melodic structure, connected with the peculiarities of the concrete text. Regarding the Slavonic texts where we can find the theta notation, so far they have not been compared to the respective noted repertoire in the specialized chant manuscripts. This article presents some results of the first of its kind study. A starting point of the study is the stihiras with theta notation present in Service menaia published by V. Jagich for September, October and November. They are compared with the parallel texts in a Russian Stiherarion with crucor notation and a Greek Stiherarion with Coalen notation (Table 1 a-b-c). It turns out that 80% of the theta signs, put in the Jagich menaion have an equivalent in the Russian, as well as in the Greek chant Stihirarion. Therefore, the use of the sign in the Slavonic texts holds on to the principle, set in the Byzantine tradition, as well as on the concrete Greek model (in case that the chant is translated). However, contrary is the result from the comparison of the Dragan menaion with the same two Stiheraria: only 20% of the theta signs which are noticed in the stiheraria for September, October and November, have a parallel in the copies with a developed notation (Table 2). This is mainly due to the variety of texts put in the Dragan menaion. The cause of most stihirs, which can be described as a “paraphrase”, does not coincide with the literal translation in the Russian Stiherarion and follows a different musical-poetic scheme.
The study is aimed at a specific moment from the Bulgarian history – the time from the Christianization (864) to the invasion of East Bulgaria by the emperor John Cimishiy (971). This period of the Bulgarian history gives the possibility to examine the phases of formation of a new cultural and political model in a newly converted to Christianity state: the Foundation of a state of an imperial type, which happens in almost all orthodox states, building their identity under the influence of Constantinople. Object of study are the following legislative monuments: The Law to judge people, The Code of church laws of XIV Titul, Eclogue, The Prohiron and the Agriculture law. The study poses two accents: 1. Sources and content of the canonic and judicial collections. The first group of problems the topic poses is connected with the clarification of the question of which judicial monuments existed in early medieval Bulgaria, entirely or their separate parts; what are their textological interrelations towards their Greek prototypes. 2. Meaning of the judicial monuments. In the First Bulgarian kingdom the translated Byzantine legislative monuments first of all play the part of a cultural (literary) testament and secondly, of real legislative acts. On the basis of the content of the juridical literature, in the article an attempt is made to clarify to what degree and how the Byzantine ideological and cultural models are copied and transformed with the purpose of: 1) accepting the newly converted to Christianity Bulgarian state within the framework of the Christian community; 2) the building, on the basis of Christianity, of a new concept of a state, nation and a ruler; 3) the regulation of the relations between the state (the ruler) and the Church.
Keywords: Byzantine legislative monuments; literature of First Bulgarian Kingdom; The Law to judge people; The Code of church laws of XIV Titul; Eclogue; The Prohiron
The use of the infinitive represents a significant peculiarity when studying the Old-Bulgarian language and especially the texts which were translated in the 9th-10th century. Of a great importance is the comparison of the infinitive constructions with the respective Greek texts. In the article for the first time are summarized the results of the study of the infinitive in the Life of saint Anthony the Great, written by Atanasius of Alexandria, translated into Old-Bulgarian in the 10th century. The translation is connected with the name of the Preslav scholar presbyter John. The purpose of the study is to establish the syntactic role and the structural peculiarities of the infinitive forms towards the Greek original, as well as to compare possible alternative forms of expression. Examined are the cases of a dependent (dynamic and declarative) and an independent infinitive. The research is part of a dissertation work on the syntax of the vitas of St. Anthony, St. John Chrysostom, St. Nifont Constansky and St. Theodor Studit, translated in the time of the First Bulgarian state.
Keywords: Old-Bulgarian language; Translation technology; infinitival constructions; Life of Saint Anthony
The description and the examination of the preserved Slavonic Cyrillic texts of the Apocalypses have so far been focused mainly on the most numerous Russian interpretation copies, on the accepted as textologically earliest Bosnia copies and Croatian Glagolhic fragments. The latest studies are aimed at finding, systematization and research of the preserved South Slavonic copies, which have not yet found their due place in the entire textological history of the book. As a result of this research up to now three versions at the distribution of the text have been known, which differ in structure, purpose and location in the content of the collections where they appear. These are: the interpretational version of the book by Andrey Kesariisky, divided in 24 orations, 72 chapters and 314 verses, distributed mainly amongst the Eastern Slavs; the Bosnia Cyrillic copies, non-interpretational, divided in 72 chapters, and the Serbian copy HM 474, also divided in 72 chapters (the first 5 are written, the rest are noted with an initial); the Croatian Glagolhic texts, separated in 22 chapters by the Latin tradition. In the present article introduced in scientific use is one more unknown up to that moment South-Slavonic tradition of distribution of the text. This is the Bulgarian panegyric version, presented by the Bulgarian copy from the middle of the 14th century, predatonic connected with the East-Bulgarian Tarnovo literature. The revision of the book in the Serbian interpretational copies, kept from the 15th to the 16th century, which is probably a result of the work of the Mount Athos scholars, also has not been object of scientific attention. The purpose is to trace the tradition they reflect on the bases of the lexical data. Thanks to the study of K. Grunberg the lexical exchanges, consequently done between the accepted as initial translation of the book from the 15th century and the editing of the text from the 14th and the 15th century are examined. The translation taken as initial is presented by the Bosnia Cyrillic copies from the 15th century (H), and the editing of the text from the 14th and 15th century – from the earliest Bulgarian copy (MS), the Serbian interpretational copies (PI), the earliest Serbian copy (HM), the Apocalypses of the Miracle New testament and its copy from 1493 (?), supported by the data from the Eastern-Slavonic interpretational copies (NI) and the text from the Ostrojka Bible (O).
Keywords: The Book of Revelation of St. John; Slavonic Cyrillic texts of the Apocalypses; Croatian Glagolhic fragments
In the article reported is a newly discovered copy of “Vision of the prophet Isaiah of the last times” in the collection “Zlataya Matitza” (HCPK № F.312), from the 70s of the 15th century, collection of the Russian National Library in Saint Petersburg. It is mechanically attached to the text of the early Slavonic composition „Слово святого Григория изобретено в толцех о том, како первое погани съще языци кланялися идолом и требы им клали, то и ныне творят”. The last text is an instruction against the pagan rituals, which belongs to a very early epoch of the history of the Slavonic literatures and cultures. It is established that the historical-apocalyptic work “Vision of the prophet Isayah” according to the newly discovered copy is close to the earliest known copy – in the Dragol collection from the third quarter of the 13th century. The author analyzes the manuscript tradition of “Слово святого Григория изобретено в толцех”, defines the history and the specific of the work, and at the same time makes suggestions about the penetration of “Vision of the prophet Isaiah” in the Russian manuscripts. The text of the collection “Zlataya Matitza” is published with different readings by the rest of the copies, accompanied by an analysis of some important linguistic peculiarities.
Keywords: Vision of the prophet Isaiah of the last times; sermon of St. Gregory with interpretation; Russian- South-Slavic literary relations
Among the great number of Bogomil apocrypha there is one which tells about the struggle between Archangel Michael and Satanail, who steals his sacred garment. A. Miltenova publishes two Slavonic versions of this text in “Old-Bulgarian literature”. (Book 9, 1981, p. 98-113). The plot of this apocryph is familiar in the Bogomil circles in Bulgaria and Serbia (there is a fresco from the 14th century in the church “St. Archangel Michael” in Lesnovo, which depicts the plot of the apochryph). Apart from the Slavonic version, however, there is also an extensive Greek variant of the same text. The story has typical Bogomil features. Satanail decides to be equal to God and escapes from Heaven, taking with him the angelic garment. God orders Archangel Michael to bring the garment back. He pretends to take the side of Satanail, deceives him and steals the piece of clothing. The Greek version is famous from only one manuscript, Vatic.Gr. 1190a. 1542. Fol.882-887. The text considerably differs from the two Slavonic versions, published by A. Miltenova. The origin of the Greek variant is quite unclear. There is no direct evidence about the translation of this text from Slavic to Greek, but its Bogomil origin is obvious. Therefore, such a translation seems possible. Such being the case, this could be a unique occasion in the post Byzantine literary tradition. The Greek version is published for the first time, with a translation in Russian, brief introduction and notes.
Keywords: Apocrypha; Bogomil herecy; Bulgarian literature; struggle between Archangel Michael and Satanail